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Preprints

Bao, Z.; Guo, Y.; Deng, Y.; Zang, J.; Zhang, J.; Ouyang, B.; Qu, X.; Bürstenbinder, K.; Wang, P.; The microtubule-associated protein SlMAP70 interacts with SlIQD21 and regulates fruit shape formation in tomato (2022) DOI: 10.1101/2022.08.08.503161

The shape of tomato fruits is closely correlated to microtubule organization and the activity of microtubule associated proteins (MAP), but insights into the mechanism from a cell biology perspective are still largely elusive. Analysis of tissue expression profiles of different microtubule regulators revealed that functionally distinct classes of MAPs are highly expressed during fruit development. Among these, several members of the plant-specific MAP70 family are preferably expressed at the initiation stage of fruit development. Transgenic tomato lines overexpressing SlMAP70 produced elongated fruits that show reduced cell circularity and microtubule anisotropy, while SlMAP70 loss-of-function mutant showed an opposite effect with flatter fruits. Microtubule anisotropy of fruit endodermis cells exhibited dramatic rearrangement during tomato fruit development, and SlMAP70-1 is likely implicated in cortical microtubule organization and fruit elongation throughout this stage by interacting with SUN10/SlIQD21a. The expression of SlMAP70 (or co-expression of SlMAP70 and SUN10/SlIQD21a) induces microtubule stabilization and prevents its dynamic rearrangement, both activities are essential for fruit shape establishment after anthesis. Together, our results identify SlMAP70 as a novel regulator of fruit elongation, and demonstrate that manipulating microtubule stability and organization at the early fruit developmental stage has a strong impact on fruit shape.
Publikation

Yang, B.; Stamm, G.; Bürstenbinder, K.; Voiniciuc, C.; Microtubule‐associated IQD9 orchestrates cellulose patterning in seed mucilage New Phytol. 235, 1096-1110, (2022) DOI: 10.1111/nph.18188

Arabidopsis seeds release large capsules of mucilaginous polysaccharides, which are shaped by an intricate network of cellulosic microfibrils. Cellulose synthase complexes are guided by the microtubule cytoskeleton, but it is unclear which proteins mediate this process in the seed coat epidermis. Using reverse genetics, we identified IQ67 DOMAIN 9 (IQD9) and KINESIN LIGHT CHAIN-RELATED 1 (KLCR1) as two highly expressed genes during seed development and comprehensively characterized their roles in cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis. Mutations in IQD9 as well as in KLCR1 lead to compact mucilage capsules with aberrant cellulose distribution, which can be rescued by transgene complementation. IQD9 physically interacts with KLCR1 and localizes to cortical MTs to maintain their organization in SCE cells. IQD9 as well as a previously identified TONNEAU1 (TON1) RECRUITING MOTIF 4 (TRM4) protein act to maintain cellulose synthase velocity. Our results demonstrate that IQD9, KLCR1 and TRM4 are MT-associated proteins that are required for seed mucilage architecture. This study provides the first direct evidence that members of the IQD, KLCR and TRM families have overlapping roles in cell wall biosynthesis. Therefore, SCE cells provide an attractive system to further decipher the complex genetic regulation of polarized cellulose deposition.
Preprints

Yang, B.; Stamm, G.; Bürstenbinder, K.; Voiniciuc, C.; Microtubule-associated IQD9 guides cellulose synthase velocity to shape seed mucilage bioRxiv (2021) DOI: 10.1101/2021.12.11.472226

SummaryArabidopsis seeds release large capsules of mucilaginous polysaccharides, which are shaped by an intricate network of cellulosic microfibrils. Cellulose synthase complexes is guided by the microtubule cytoskeleton, but it is unclear which proteins mediate this process in the seed coat epidermis (SCE).Using reverse genetics, we identified IQ67 DOMAIN 9 (IQD9) and KINESIN LIGHT CHAIN-RELATED 1 (KLCR1) as two highly expressed genes during seed development and comprehensively characterized their roles for cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis and cortical microtubule (MT) organization.Mutations in IQD9 as well as in KLCR1 lead to compact mucilage capsules with aberrant cellulose distribution, which can be rescued by transgene complementation. Double mutant analyses revealed that their closest paralogs (IQD10 and KLCR2, respectively) are not required for mucilage biosynthesis. IQD9 physically interacts with KLCR1 and localizes to cortical MTs to maintain their organization in SCE cells. Similar to the previously identified TONNEAU1 (TON1) RECRUITING MOTIF 4 (TRM4) protein, IQD9 is required to maintain the velocity of cellulose synthases.Our results demonstrate that IQD9, KLCR1 and TRM4 are MT-associated proteins that are required for seed mucilage architecture. This study provides the first direct evidence that members of the IQD, KLCR and TRM families have overlapping roles in guiding the distribution of cell wall polysaccharides. Therefore, SCE cells provide an attractive system to further decipher the complex genetic regulation of polarized cellulose deposition.
Publikation

Bao, Z.; Xu, Z.; Zang, J.; Bürstenbinder, K.; Wang, P.; The Morphological Diversity of Plant Organs: Manipulating the Organization of Microtubules May Do the Trick Front Cell Dev Biol 9, 649626, (2021) DOI: 10.3389/fcell.2021.649626

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Publikation

Zang, J.; Klemm, S.; Pain, C.; Duckney, P.; Bao, Z.; Stamm, G.; Kriechbaumer, V.; Bürstenbinder, K.; Hussey, P. J.; Wang, P.; A novel plant actin-microtubule bridging complex regulates cytoskeletal and ER structure at ER-PM contact sites Curr. Biol. 31, 1251-1260, (2021) DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2020.12.009

In plants, the cortical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network is connected to the plasma membrane (PM) through the ER-PM contact sites (EPCSs), whose structures are maintained by EPCS resident proteins and the cytoskeleton.1-7 Strong co-alignment between EPCSs and the cytoskeleton is observed in plants,1,8 but little is known of how the cytoskeleton is maintained and regulated at the EPCS. Here, we have used a yeast-two-hybrid screen and subsequent in vivo interaction studies in plants by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) analysis to identify two microtubule binding proteins, KLCR1 (kinesin-light-chain-related protein 1) and IQD2 (IQ67-domain 2), that interact with the actin binding protein NET3C and form a component of plant EPCS that mediates the link between the actin and microtubule networks. The NET3C-KLCR1-IQD2 module, acting as an actin-microtubule bridging complex, has a direct influence on ER morphology and EPCS structure. Their loss-of-function mutants, net3a/NET3C RNAi, klcr1, or iqd2, exhibit defects in pavement cell morphology, which we suggest is linked to the disorganization of both actin filaments and microtubules. In conclusion, our results reveal a novel cytoskeletal-associated complex, which is essential for the maintenance and organization of cytoskeletal structure and ER morphology at the EPCS and for normal plant cell morphogenesis.
Publikation

Kumari, P.; Dahiya, P.; Livanos, P.; Zergiebel, L.; Kölling, M.; Poeschl, Y.; Stamm, G.; Hermann, A.; Abel, S.; Müller, S.; Bürstenbinder, K.; IQ67 DOMAIN proteins facilitate preprophase band formation and division-plane orientation Nat. Plants 7, 739-747, (2021) DOI: 10.1038/s41477-021-00923-z

Spatiotemporal control of cell division is essential for the growth and development of multicellular organisms. In plant cells, proper cell plate insertion during cytokinesis relies on the premitotic establishment of the division plane at the cell cortex. Two plant-specific cytoskeleton arrays, the preprophase band (PPB) and the phragmoplast, play important roles in division-plane orientation and cell plate formation, respectively1. Microtubule organization and dynamics and their communication with membranes at the cortex and cell plate are coordinated by multiple, mostly distinct microtubule-associated proteins2. How division-plane selection and establishment are linked, however, is still unknown. Here, we report members of the Arabidopsis IQ67 DOMAIN (IQD) family3 as microtubule-targeted proteins that localize to the PPB and phragmoplast and additionally reside at the cell plate and a polarized cortical region including the cortical division zone (CDZ). IQDs physically interact with PHRAGMOPLAST ORIENTING KINESIN (POK) proteins4,5 and PLECKSTRIN HOMOLOGY GTPase ACTIVATING (PHGAP) proteins6, which are core components of the CDZ1. The loss of IQD function impairs PPB formation and affects CDZ recruitment of POKs and PHGAPs, resulting in division-plane positioning defects. We propose that IQDs act as cellular scaffolds that facilitate PPB formation and CDZ set-up during symmetric cell division.
Publikation

Vaddepalli, P.; de Zeeuw, T.; Strauss, S.; Bürstenbinder, K.; Liao, C.-Y.; Ramalho, J. J.; Smith, R. S.; Weijers, D.; Auxin-dependent control of cytoskeleton and cell shape regulates division orientation in the Arabidopsis embryo Curr. Biol. 31, 4946-4955, (2021) DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.09.019

Premitotic control of cell division orientation is critical for plant development, as cell walls prevent extensive cell remodeling or migration. While many divisions are proliferative and add cells to existing tissues, some divisions are formative and generate new tissue layers or growth axes. Such formative divisions are often asymmetric in nature, producing daughters with different fates. We have previously shown that, in the Arabidopsis thaliana embryo, developmental asymmetry is correlated with geometric asymmetry, creating daughter cells of unequal volume. Such divisions are generated by division planes that deviate from a default “minimal surface area” rule. Inhibition of auxin response leads to reversal to this default, yet the mechanisms underlying division plane choice in the embryo have been unclear. Here, we show that auxin-dependent division plane control involves alterations in cell geometry, but not in cell polarity axis or nuclear position. Through transcriptome profiling, we find that auxin regulates genes controlling cell wall and cytoskeleton properties. We confirm the involvement of microtubule (MT)-binding proteins in embryo division control. Organization of both MT and actin cytoskeleton depends on auxin response, and genetically controlled MT or actin depolymerization in embryos leads to disruption of asymmetric divisions, including reversion to the default. Our work shows how auxin-dependent control of MT and actin cytoskeleton properties interacts with cell geometry to generate asymmetric divisions during the earliest steps in plant development.
Preprints

Zang, J.; Klemm, S.; Pain, C.; Duckney, P.; Bao, Z.; Stamm, G.; Kriechbaumer, V.; Bürstenbinder, K.; Hussey, P. J.; Wang, P.; A Novel Plant Actin-Microtubule Bridging Complex Regulates Cytoskeletal and ER Structure at Endoplasmic Reticulum-Plasma Membrane Contact Sites (EPCS) SSRN Electronic Journal (2020) DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.3581370

In plants, the cortical ER network is connected to the plasma membrane through the ER-PM contact sites (EPCS), whose structures are maintained by EPCS resident proteins and the cytoskeleton. Strong co-alignment between EPCS and the cytoskeleton is observed in plants, but little is known of how the cytoskeleton is maintained and regulated at the EPCS. Here we have used a yeast-two-hybrid screen and subsequent in vivo interaction studies in plants by FRET-FLIM analysis, to identify two microtubule binding proteins, KLCR1 (Kinesin Light Chain Related protein 1) and IQD2 (IQ67-Domain 2) that interact with the actin binding protein NET3C and form a component of plant EPCS, that mediates the link between the actin and microtubule networks. The NET3C-KLCR1-IQD2 module, acting as an actin-microtubule bridging complex, has a direct influence on ER morphology. Their loss of function mutants, net3a/NET3C RNAi, 0klcr1 or iqd2, exhibit defects in pavement cell morphology which we suggest is linked to the disorganization of both actin filaments and microtubules. In conclusion, our results reveal a novel cytoskeletal associated complex, which is essential for the maintenance and organization of both cytoskeletal structure and ER morphology at the EPCS, and for normal plant cell morphogenesis.
Bücher und Buchkapitel

Poeschl, Y.; Möller, B.; Müller, L.; Bürstenbinder, K.; User-friendly assessment of pavement cell shape features with PaCeQuant: Novel functions and tools (Charles T. Anderson, Elizabeth S. Haswell, Ram Dixit). Methods Cell Biol. 160, 349-363, (2020) DOI: 10.1016/bs.mcb.2020.04.010

Leaf epidermis pavement cells develop complex jigsaw puzzle-like shapes in many plant species, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Due to their complex morphology, pavement cells have become a popular model system to study shape formation and coordination of growth in the context of mechanically coupled cells at the tissue level. To facilitate robust assessment and analysis of pavement cell shape characteristics in a high-throughput fashion, we have developed PaCeQuant and a collection of supplemental tools. The ImageJ-based MiToBo plugin PaCeQuant supports fully automatic segmentation of cell contours from microscopy images and the extraction of 28 shape features for each detected cell. These features now also include the Largest Empty Circle criterion as a proxy for mechanical stress. In addition, PaCeQuant provides a set of eight features for individual lobes, including the categorization as type I and type II lobes at two- and three-cell junctions, respectively. The segmentation and feature extraction results of PaCeQuant depend on the quality of input images. To allow for corrections in case of local segmentation errors, the LabelImageEditor is provided for user-friendly manual postprocessing of segmentation results. For statistical analysis and visualization, PaCeQuant is supplemented with the R package PaCeQuantAna, which provides statistical analysis functions and supports the generation of publication-ready plots in ready-to-use R workflows. In addition, we recently released the FeatureColorMapper tool which overlays feature values over cell regions for user-friendly visual exploration of selected features in a set of analyzed cells.
Publikation

Kölling, M.; Kumari, P.; Bürstenbinder, K.; Calcium- and calmodulin-regulated microtubule-associated proteins as signal-integration hubs at the plasma membrane–cytoskeleton nexus J. Exp. Bot. 70, 387-396, (2019) DOI: 10.1093/jxb/ery397

Plant growth and development are a genetically predetermined series of events but can change dramatically in response to environmental stimuli, involving perpetual pattern formation and reprogramming of development. The rate of growth is determined by cell division and subsequent cell expansion, which are restricted and controlled by the cell wall–plasma membrane–cytoskeleton continuum, and are coordinated by intricate networks that facilitate intra- and intercellular communication. An essential role in cellular signaling is played by calcium ions, which act as universal second messengers that transduce, integrate, and multiply incoming signals during numerous plant growth processes, in part by regulation of the microtubule cytoskeleton. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the understanding of calcium-mediated regulation of microtubule-associated proteins, their function at the microtubule cytoskeleton, and their potential role as hubs in crosstalk with other signaling pathways.
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