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Publications - Bioorganic Chemistry

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Publications

Soboleva, A.; Mavropulo-Stolyarenko, G.; Karonova, T.; Thieme, D.; Hoehenwarter, W.; Ihling, C.; Stefanov, V.; Grishina, T.; Frolov, A. Multiple Glycation Sites in Blood Plasma Proteins as an Integrated Biomarker of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Int J Mol Sci 20, 2329, (2019) DOI: 10.3390/ijms20092329

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most widely spread metabolic diseases. Because of its asymptomatic onset and slow development, early diagnosis and adequate glycaemic control are the prerequisites for successful T2DM therapy. In this context, individual amino acid residues might be sensitive indicators of alterations in blood glycation levels. Moreover, due to a large variation in the half-life times of plasma proteins, a generalized biomarker, based on multiple glycation sites, might provide comprehensive control of the glycemic status across any desired time span. Therefore, here, we address the patterns of glycation sites in highly-abundant blood plasma proteins of T2DM patients and corresponding age- and gender-matched controls by comprehensive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The analysis revealed 42 lysyl residues, significantly upregulated under hyperglycemic conditions. Thereby, for 32 glycation sites, biomarker behavior was demonstrated here for the first time. The differentially glycated lysines represented nine plasma proteins with half-lives from 2 to 21 days, giving access to an integrated biomarker based on multiple protein-specific Amadori peptides. The validation of this biomarker relied on linear discriminant analysis (LDA) with random sub-sampling of the training set and leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV), which resulted in an accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity of 92%, 100%, and 85%, respectively.
Publications

Drača, D.; Mijatović, S.; Krajnović, T.; Pristov, J. B.; Đukić, T.; Kaluđerović, G. N.; Wessjohann, L. A.; Maksimović-Ivanić, D. The synthetic tubulysin derivative, tubugi-1, improves the innate immune response by macrophage polarization in addition to its direct cytotoxic effects in a murine melanoma model Exp Cell Res 380, 159-170, (2019) DOI: 10.1016/j.yexcr.2019.04.028

Synthetic tubugis are equally potent but more stable than their natural forms. Their anticancer potential was estimated on a solid melanoma in vitro and in vivo. Tubugi-1 induced the apoptosis in B16 cells accompanied with strong intracellular production of reactive species, subsequently imposing glutathione and thiol group depletion. Paradoxically, membrane lipids were excluded from the cascade of intracellular oxidation, according to malondialdehyde decrease. Although morphologically apoptosis was typical, externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) as an early apoptotic event was not detected. Even their exposition is pivotal for apoptotic cell eradication, primary macrophages successfully eliminated PS-deficient tubugi-1 induced apoptotic cells. The tumor volume in animals exposed to the drug in therapeutic mode was reduced in comparison to control as well as to paclitaxel-treated animals. Importantly, macrophages isolated from tubugi-1 treated animals possessed conserved phagocytic activity and were functionally and phenotypically recognized as M1. The cytotoxic effect of tubugi-1 is accomplished through its ability to polarize the macrophages toward M1, probably by PS independent apoptotic cell engulfment. The unique potential of tubugi-1 to prime the innate immune response through the induction of a specific pattern of tumor cell apoptosis can be of extraordinary importance from fundamental and applicable aspects.
Publications

Rehman, N. U.; Khan, A.; Al-Harrasi, A.; Khiat, M.; Hussain, H.; Wadood, A.; Riaz, M. Natural urease inhibitors from Aloe vera resin and Lycium shawii and their structural-activity relationship and molecular docking study Bioorg Chem 88, 102955, (2019) DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2019.102955

Bio-assay guided fractionation of the methanolic extract of Aloe vera resin and Lycium shawii stem successively afforded twenty three compounds; fourteen (1–14) from A. vera and nine (15–23) from L. shawii. All these compounds were characterized by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques viz., 1H, 13C, DEPT, HSQC, HMBC, and COSY, and NEOSY, ESI-MS and compared with the reported literature. These compounds were assessed for their potential as urease inhibitors targeted in peptic ulcer. Among crude extracts and fractions of A. vera resin, n-butanol fraction (23.5 ± 1.7 μg·mL−1) showed the most potent urease inhibition followed by methanol (30.9 ± 0.3 μg/mL) and ethyl acetate (31.7 ± 0.5 μg·mL−1). In case of L. shawii, ethyl acetate fraction exhibited the highest urease activity (41.0 ± 1.4 μg/mL) trailed by dichloromethane (55.2 ± 1.5 μg/mL) fraction. Among the isolates, compounds 7, 11 and 23 were found to be excellent urease inhibitors with IC50 values of 14.5 ± 0.90 µM, (16.7 ± 0.16 µM) and 14.0 ± 0.8 µM, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the urease enzyme inhibitory activity of the said compounds excluding compound 18. In addition, the urease activity of different fractions of L. shawii stem was also reported for the first time. The molecular docking studies showed that all the active compounds well accommodate in the active site of the urease enzyme by interacting with key amino acids.
Printed publications

Bathe, U.; Frolov, A.; Porzel, A.; Tissier, A. CYP76 Oxidation Network of Abietane Diterpenes in Lamiaceae Reconstituted in Yeast J Agr Food Chem (2019) DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.9b00714

Rosemary and sage species from Lamiaceae contain high amounts of structurally related but diverse abietane diterpenes. A number of substances from this compound family have potential pharmacological activities and are used in the food and cosmetic industry. This has raised interest in their biosynthesis. Investigations in Rosmarinus officinalis and some sage species have uncovered two main groups of cytochrome P450 oxygenases that are involved in the oxidation of the precursor abietatriene. CYP76AHs produce ferruginol and 11-hydroxyferruginol, while CYP76AKs catalyze oxidations at the C20 position. Using a modular Golden-Gate-compatible assembly system for yeast expression, these enzymes were systematically tested either alone or in combination. A total of 14 abietane diterpenes could be detected, 8 of which have not been reported thus far. We demonstrate here that yeast is a valid system for engineering and reconstituting the abietane diterpene network, allowing for the discovery of novel compounds with potential bioactivity.
Publications

Mamontova, T.; Afonin, A. M.; Ihling, C.; Soboleva, A.; Lukasheva, E.; Sulima, A. S.; Shtark, O. Y.; Akhtemova, G. A.; Povydysh, M. N.; Sinz, A.; Frolov, A.; Zhukov, V. A.; Tikhonovich, I. A. Profiling of Seed Proteome in Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Lines Characterized with High and Low Responsivity to Combined Inoculation with Nodule Bacteria and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Molecules 24, 1603, (2019) DOI: 10.3390/molecules24081603

Legume crops represent the major source of food protein and contribute to human nutrition and animal feeding. An essential improvement of their productivity can be achieved by symbiosis with beneficial soil microorganisms—rhizobia (Rh) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The efficiency of these interactions depends on plant genotype. Recently, we have shown that, after simultaneous inoculation with Rh and AM, the productivity gain of pea (Pisum sativum L) line K-8274, characterized by high efficiency of interaction with soil microorganisms (EIBSM), was higher in comparison to a low-EIBSM line K-3358. However, the molecular mechanisms behind this effect are still uncharacterized. Therefore, here, we address the alterations in pea seed proteome, underlying the symbiosis-related productivity gain, and identify 111 differentially expressed proteins in the two lines. The high-EIBSM line K-8274 responded to inoculation by prolongation of seed maturation, manifested by up-regulation of proteins involved in cellular respiration, protein biosynthesis, and down-regulation of late-embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins. In contrast, the low-EIBSM line K-3358 demonstrated lower levels of the proteins, related to cell metabolism. Thus, we propose that the EIBSM trait is linked to prolongation of seed filling that needs to be taken into account in pulse crop breeding programs. The raw data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD013479.
Publications

Yadav, H.; Dreher, D.; Athmer, B.; Porzel, A.; Gavrin, A.; Baldermann, S.; Tissier, A.; Hause, B. Medicago TERPENE SYNTHASE 10 Is Involved in Defense Against an Oomycete Root Pathogen Plant Physiol 180, 1598-1613, (2019) DOI: 10.1104/pp.19.00278

In nature, plants interact with numerous beneficial or pathogenic soil-borne microorganisms. Plants have developed various defense strategies to expel pathogenic microbes, some of which function soon after pathogen infection. We used Medicago truncatula and its oomycete pathogen Aphanomyces euteiches to elucidate early responses of the infected root. A. euteiches causes root rot disease in legumes and is a limiting factor in legume production. Transcript profiling of seedlings and adult plant roots inoculated with A. euteiches zoospores for 2 h revealed specific upregulation of a gene encoding a putative sesquiterpene synthase (M. truncatula TERPENE SYNTHASE 10 [MtTPS10]) in both developmental stages. MtTPS10 was specifically expressed in roots upon oomycete infection. Heterologous expression of MtTPS10 in yeast led to production of a blend of sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpene alcohols, with NMR identifying a major peak corresponding to himalachol. Moreover, plants carrying a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) retrotransposon Tnt1 insertion in MtTPS10 lacked the emission of sesquiterpenes upon A. euteiches infection, supporting the assumption that the identified gene encodes a multiproduct sesquiterpene synthase. Mttps10 plants and plants with reduced MtTPS10 transcript levels created by expression of an MtTPS10-artificial microRNA in roots were more susceptible to A. euteiches infection than were the corresponding wild-type plants and roots transformed with the empty vector, respectively. Sesquiterpenes produced by expression of MtTPS10 in yeast also inhibited mycelial growth and A. euteiches zoospore germination. These data suggest that sesquiterpene production in roots by MtTPS10 plays a previously unrecognized role in the defense response of M. truncatula against A. euteiches.
Publications

Edeler, D.; Drača, D.; Petković, V.; Natalio, F.; Maksimović-Ivanić, D.; Mijatović, S.; Schmidt, H.; Kaluđerović, G. N. Impact of the mesoporous silica SBA-15 functionalization on the mode of action of Ph3Sn(CH2)6OH Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 100, 315-322, (2019) DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2019.03.010

Herein appropriateness of nonfunctionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles SBA-15 and functionalized with (3-chloropropyl)triethoxysilane (→ SBA-15~Cl) and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (→ SBA-15~NH2) on delivery of physically adsorbed Ph3Sn(CH2)6OH (Sn6) is evaluated. Fluorescent nanomaterial, bearing isatoic moiety, loaded with Sn6 (→ SBA-15~NF|Sn6) was used for cellular uptake study. The fluorescent nanomaterial is efficiently acquired and distributed into the cytoplasm of the cells even after 2 h of cultivation. According to the attained data, all SBA-15 materials loaded with Sn6 diminished cellular viability in dose dependent manner while carriers alone (SBA-15, SBA-15~Cl, SBA-15~NH2) did not show cytotoxicity against B16 cells. According to the MC50 values structural modification of SBA-15 did not improve the efficacy of tested drug. While progressive apoptosis was detected upon the treatment with SBA-15|Sn6, exposure of cells to SBA-15~NH2|Sn6 revealed extinguished apoptosis in time, accompanied with lower caspase activity. This effect is probably due to triggered autophagic process under the treatment with the SBA-15~NH2|Sn6, thus opposed to apoptosis. Presented results suggested that functionalization of SBA-15 was not beneficial for the efficacy of loaded drug, thus, all of them are almost equally efficient considering loaded Sn6 content. Importantly, functionalization of SBA-15 does have an influence on the mode of action and differentiation inducing properties.
Publications

Abbas, G.; Al Harrasi, A.; Hussain, H.; Hamaed, A.; Supuran, C. T. The management of diabetes mellitus-imperative role of natural products against dipeptidyl peptidase-4, α-glucosidase and sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) Bioorg Chem 86, 305-315, (2019) DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2019.02.009

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder which is rapidly spreading worldwide. It is characterized by persistent elevated blood glucose level above normal values (hyperglycemia) due to defect in either insulin secretion or in insulin action or both of them. Currently approved oral synthetic antidiabetic drugs such as biguanides, thiazolidinediones, sulfonylureas, and meglitinides have shown undesirable side effects. Therefore, newer approaches and targets for the management of diabetes mellitus are highly desirable. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 enzyme, α-glucosidase enzyme and sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) have been recognized as effective therapeutic targets for the management of diabetes mellitus while natural products are alternatives to oral synthetic hypoglycemic agents. During the last two decades, many researchers were working on the identification and the validation of plant-derived products for curing various diseases. Natural products do not only provide useful drugs in their own right but also provide templates for the development of more effective compounds for enhanced therapeutic potential. Herein, we advocated the vital role of natural products as source of new drugs by presenting promising inhibitors of dipeptidyle peptidase-4 enzyme, α-glucosidase enzyme and (SGLT2) obtained from different medicinal plants as potential candidates for drug development against diabetes mellitus. The structure–activity relationship (SAR) of these various inhibitors is also discussed.
Printed publications

Shamraiz, U.; Hussain, H.; Ur Rehman, N.; Al-Shidhani, S.; Saeed, A.; Khan, H. Y.; Khan, A.; Fischer, L.; Csuk, R.; Badshah, A.; Al-Rawahi, A.; Hussain, J.; Al-Harrasi, A. Synthesis of new boswellic acid derivatives as potential antiproliferative agents Nat Prod Res (2019) DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2018.1564295

In the current investigation, a series of heterocyclic derivatives of boswellic acids were prepared along with new monomers of 3-O-acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA, 1) 11-keto-β-boswellic acid (KBA, 2) and several new bis-AKBA and KBA homodimers and AKBA-KBA heterodimers. The effects of these compounds on the proliferation of different human cancer cell lines, viz., FaDu (pharynx carcinoma), A2780 (ovarian carcinoma), HT29 (colon adenocarcinoma), and A375 (malignant melanoma), have been evaluated. Thus, KBA homodimer 21 effectively inhibited the growth of FaDu, A2780, HT29, and A375 cells with EC50 values below 9 μM. In addition, compounds 7, 8, 11, 12, 15, 16, and 17 also exhibited cytotoxic effects for A2780, HT29, and A375 cancer cells. In particular, the pyrazine analog 8 was highly cytotoxic for A375 cancer cells with an EC50 value of 2.1 μM.
Publications

Farag, M. A.; Tawfike, A. F.; Donia, M. S.; Ehrlich, A.; Wessjohann, L. A. Influence of Pickling Process on Allium cepa and Citrus limon Metabolome as Determined via Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics Molecules 24, 928, (2019) DOI: 10.3390/molecules24050928

Brine, the historically known food additive salt solution, has been widely used as a pickling media to preserve flavor or enhance food aroma, appearance, or other qualities. The influence of pickling, using brine, on the aroma compounds and the primary and secondary metabolite profile in onion bulb Allium cepa red cv. and lemon fruit Citrus limon was evaluated using multiplex metabolomics technologies. In lemon, pickling negatively affected its key odor compound “citral”, whereas monoterpene hydrocarbons limonene and γ-terpinene increased in the pickled product. Meanwhile, in onion sulphur rearrangement products appeared upon storage, i.e., 3,5-diethyl-1,2,4-trithiolane. Profiling of the polar secondary metabolites in lemon fruit via ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to MS annotated 37 metabolites including 18 flavonoids, nine coumarins, five limonoids, and two organic acids. With regard to pickling impact, notable and clear separation among specimens was observed with an orthogonal projections to least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) score plot for the lemon fruit model showing an enrichment of limonoids and organic acids and that for fresh onion bulb showing an abundance of flavonols and saponins. In general, the pickling process appeared to negatively impact the abundance of secondary metabolites in both onion and lemon, suggesting a decrease in their food health benefits.
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