@Article{IPB-2609, author = {Ramadan, N. S. and Wessjohann, L. A. and Mocan, A. and Vodnar, D. C. and El-Sayed, N. H. and El-Toumy, S. A. and Mohamed, D. A. and Aziz, Z. A. and Ehrlich, A. and Farag, M. A.}, title = {{Nutrient and Sensory Metabolites Profiling of Averrhoa Carambola L. (Starfruit) in the Context of Its Origin and Ripening Stage by GC/MS and Chemometric Analysis}}, year = {2020}, pages = {2423}, journal = {Molecules}, doi = {10.3390/molecules25102423}, url = {https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25102423}, volume = {25}, abstract = {Averrhoa carambola L. is a tropical tree with edible fruit that grows at different climatic conditions. Despite its nutritive value and reported health benefits, it is a controversial fruit owing to its rich oxalate content. The present study aimed at investigating aroma and nutrient primary metabolites distribution in A. carambola fruits grown in Indonesia, Malaysia (its endemic origin) versus Egypt, and at different ripening stages. Two techniques were employed to assess volatile and non-volatile metabolites including headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) joined with gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-MS post silylation, respectively. Twenty-four volatiles were detected, with esters amounting for the major class of volatiles in Egyptian fruit at ca. 66%, with methyl caproate as the major component, distinguishing it from other origins. In contrast, aldehydes predominated tropically grown fruits with the ether myristicin found exclusively in these. Primary metabolites profiling led to the identification of 117 metabolites viz. sugars, polyols and organic acids. Fructose (38–48%) and glucose (21–25%) predominated sugar compositions in ripe fruits, whereas sorbitol was the major sugar alcohol (2.4–10.5%) in ripe fruits as well. Oxalic acid, an anti-nutrient with potential health risks, was the major organic acid detected in all the studied fruits (1.7–2.7%), except the Malaysian one (0.07%). It increases upon fruit ripening, including considerable amounts of volatile oxalate esters detected via SPME, and which must not be omitted in total oxalate determinations for safety assessments.} }