@Article{IPB-2338, author = {Bathe, U. and Tissier, A.}, title = {{Cytochrome P450 enzymes: A driving force of plant diterpene diversity}}, year = {2019}, pages = {149-162}, journal = {Phytochemistry}, doi = {10.1016/j.phytochem.2018.12.003}, url = {https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2018.12.003}, volume = {161}, abstract = {In plant terpene biosynthesis, oxidation of the hydrocarbon backbone produced by terpene synthases is typically carried out by cytochrome P450 oxygenases (CYPs). The modifications introduced by CYPs include hydroxylations, sequential oxidations at one position and ring rearrangements and closures. These reactions significantly expand the structural diversity of terpenoids, but also provide anchoring points for further decorations by various transferases. In recent years, there has been a significant increase in reports of CYPs involved in plant terpene pathways. Plant diterpenes represent an important class of metabolites that includes hormones and a number of industrially relevant compounds such as pharmaceutical, aroma or food ingredients. In this review, we provide a comprehensive survey on CYPs reported to be involved in plant diterpene biosynthesis to date. A phylogenetic analysis showed that only few CYP clans are represented in diterpene biosynthesis, namely CYP71, CYP85 and CYP72. Remarkably few CYP families and subfamilies within those clans are involved, indicating specific expansion of these clades in plant diterpene biosynthesis. Nonetheless, the evolutionary trajectory of CYPs of specialized diterpene biosynthesis is diverse. Some are recently derived from gibberellin biosynthesis, while others have a more ancient history with recent expansions in specific plant families. Among diterpenoids, labdane-related diterpenoids represent a dominant class. The availability of CYPs from diverse plant species able to catalyze oxidations in specific regions of the labdane-related backbones provides opportunities for combinatorial biosynthesis to produce novel diterpene compounds that can be screened for biological activities of interest.} }