@Article{IPB-195, author = {Cherevatskaya, M. and Cherepanov, I. and Kalganova, N. and Erofeeva, N. and Romanovskaya, E. and Frolov, A. and Bilova, T. and Moiseev, S. and Wessjohann, L. A.}, title = {{Sydnone imines as a new class of promising plant growth and stress tolerance modulators—A first experimental structure–activity overview}}, year = {2024}, pages = {133-154}, journal = {Stresses}, doi = {10.3390/stresses4010008}, url = {https://doi.org/10.3390/stresses4010008}, volume = {4}, abstract = {Due to the oncoming climate changes, various environmental stresses (drought, salinity, heavy-metals, low or high temperatures, etc.) might dramatically affect crop yields and the quality of produced foods. Therefore, to meet the growing food demand of the human population, improvement of stress tolerance of the currently cultured crops is required. The knowledge of the molecular underlying mechanisms provides a versatile instrument to correct plant metabolism via chemical tools and to thereby increase their adaptive potential. This will preserve crop productivity and quality under abiotic stress conditions. Endogenously produced nitric oxide (NO) is one of the key signaling factors activating stress tolerance mechanisms in plants. Thus, the application of synthetic NO donors as stress-protective phytoeffectors might support maintaining plant growth and productivity under stressful conditions. Sydnone imines (sydnonimines) are a class of clinically established mesoionic heterocyclic NO donors which represent a promising candidate group for such phytoeffectors. Therefore, here, we provide an overview of the current progress in the application of sydnone imines as exogenous NO donors in plants, with a special emphasis on their potential as herbicides as well as herbicide antidotes, growth stimulants and stress protectors triggering plant tolerance mechanisms. We specifically address the structure–activity relationships in the context of the growth modulating activity of sydnone imines. Growth stimulating or antidote effects are typical for 4-α-hydroxybenzyl derivatives of sydnone imines containing an alkyl substituent in position N-3. The nature of the substituent of the N-6 atom has a significant influence on the activity profile and the intensity of the effect. Nevertheless, further investigations are necessary to establish reliable structure–activity relationships (SAR). Consequently, sydnone imines might be considered promising phytoeffector candidates, which are expected to exert either protective effects on plants growing under unfavorable conditions, or herbicidal ones, depending on the exact structure.} }