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Publikationen - Natur- und Wirkstoffchemie

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Schüler, J.-A.; Neumann, S.; Müller-Hannemann, M.; Brandt, W. ChemFrag: Chemically meaningful annotation of fragment ion mass spectra J Mass Spectrom 53, 1104-1115, (2018) DOI: 10.1002/jms.4278

Identification and structural determination of small molecules by mass spectrometry is an important step in chemistry and biochemistry. However, the chemically realistic annotation of a fragment ion spectrum can be a difficult challenge. We developed ChemFrag, for the detection of fragmentation pathways and the annotation of fragment ions with chemically reasonable structures. ChemFrag combines a quantum chemical with a rule‐based approach. For different doping substances as test instances, ChemFrag correctly annotates fragment ions. In most cases, the predicted fragments are chemically more realistic than those from purely combinatorial approaches, or approaches based on machine learning. The annotation generated by ChemFrag often coincides with spectra that have been manually annotated by experts. This is a major advance in peak annotation and allows a more precise automatic interpretation of mass spectra.

Schober, D.; Jacob, D.; Wilson, M.; Cruz, J. A.; Marcu, A.; Grant, J. R.; Moing, A.; Deborde, C.; de Figueiredo, L. F.; Haug, K.; Rocca-Serra, P.; Easton, J.; Ebbels, T. M. D.; Hao, J.; Ludwig, C.; Günther, U. L.; Rosato, A.; Klein, M. S.; Lewis, I. A.; Luchinat, C.; Jones, A. R.; Grauslys, A.; Larralde, M.; Yokochi, M.; Kobayashi, N.; Porzel, A.; Griffin, J. L.; Viant, M. R.; Wishart, D. S.; Steinbeck, C.; Salek, R. M.; Neumann, S. nmrML: A Community Supported Open Data Standard for the Description, Storage, and Exchange of NMR Data Anal Chem 90, 649–656, (2018) DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.7b02795

NMR is a widely used analytical technique with a growing number of repositories available. As a result, demands for a vendor-agnostic, open data format for long-term archiving of NMR data have emerged with the aim to ease and encourage sharing, comparison, and reuse of NMR data. Here we present nmrML, an open XML-based exchange and storage format for NMR spectral data. The nmrML format is intended to be fully compatible with existing NMR data for chemical, biochemical, and metabolomics experiments. nmrML can capture raw NMR data, spectral data acquisition parameters, and where available spectral metadata, such as chemical structures associated with spectral assignments. The nmrML format is compatible with pure-compound NMR data for reference spectral libraries as well as NMR data from complex biomixtures, i.e., metabolomics experiments. To facilitate format conversions, we provide nmrML converters for Bruker, JEOL and Agilent/Varian vendor formats. In addition, easy-to-use Web-based spectral viewing, processing, and spectral assignment tools that read and write nmrML have been developed. Software libraries and Web services for data validation are available for tool developers and end-users. The nmrML format has already been adopted for capturing and disseminating NMR data for small molecules by several open source data processing tools and metabolomics reference spectral libraries, e.g., serving as storage format for the MetaboLights data repository. The nmrML open access data standard has been endorsed by the Metabolomics Standards Initiative (MSI), and we here encourage user participation and feedback to increase usability and make it a successful standard.

Hussain, H.; Green, I. R.; Shamraiz, U.; Saleem, M.; Badshah, A.; Abbas, G.; Rehman, N. U.; Irshad, M. Therapeutic potential of glycyrrhetinic acids: a patent review (2010-2017) Expert Opin Ther Pat 28, 383-398, (2018) DOI: 10.1080/13543776.2018.1455828

Introduction: Glycyrrhetinic acids (GAs) viz., 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid and 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid, are oleanane-type triterpenes having a carboxylic acid group at C-30, and are extracted from the Chines herbal medicine licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis). Although the pharmacological properties of GAs have long been known, attention to them has greatly increased in recent times due to their cytotoxic activity.Areas covered: This review represents the patents granted about natural and synthetic glycyrrhetinic acid analogs from January 2010 to December 2017, the advances made by research groups in conjunction with pharmaceutical companies in the discovery of new natural or synthetic glycyrrhetinic acid analogs.Expert opinion: GAs demonstrate excellent cytotoxic, antimicrobial, enzyme inhibitory, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic, and antiviral effects. It is interesting to note that the C-3(OH) and C30-CO2H functional groups make GAs very attractive lead structures for medicinal scientists since these functionalities allow the generation of further chemical diversity for improved pharmacological effects. Moreover, various GA analogues have been prepared via modification of the C30-CO2H. It is noteworthy that the C-30 amide of GA demonstrated better cytotoxic effects compared to the parent compounds. In addition, GAs have the capability to conjugate with other anticancer drugs or be converted into their halo or amino analogs which is expected to stimulate medicinal chemist to synthesize new lead compounds in cancer drug discovery.

Hussain, H.; Csuk, R.; Green, I. R.; Ur Rehman, N.; Abbas, G.; Hussain, W. Journey Describing the Cytotoxic Potential of Withanolides: A Patent Review Recent Pat Anti-Canc Drug Discov 13, 411-421, (2018) DOI: 10.2174/1574892813666180808154928

Withanolides are C-28 ergostane steroids known to demonstrate some very interesting therapeutic properties. Numerous withanolides have been isolated from a variety of different plant species and can be employed to treat various types of cancers. Withanolides are indeed capable of demonstrating excellent anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective activities. Additionally, libraries of prepared withaferin A analogs incorporating an acyl, sulphate, amide and aldehyde functionality have demonstrated the most potential response. It is of particular interest to note that an acetyl group at either C-4, C-19 or C-27 enhances the anticancer effects. Since the majority of natural withanolides reported in patents are classified as “Type-A”, it is our opinion that there should now be a focus on developing “Type-B” withanolides and an investigation into their various therapeutic applications. Moreover, very little real innovation in synthetic methodologies has been reported which opens up huge possibilities for novel synthetic methodologies to be developed for the production of larger libraries new withanolides and their analogs to incorporate chemical diversity. In addition, since withanolides have the capability to conjugate with other anticancer compounds, this should encourage scientists to prepare lead compounds in cancer drug discovery.

Farag, M. A.; Maamoun, A. A.; Meyer, A.; Wessjohann, L. A. Salicylic acid and its derivatives elicit the production of diterpenes and sterols in corals and their algal symbionts: a metabolomics approach to elicitor SAR Metabolomics 14, 127, (2018) DOI: 10.1007/s11306-018-1416-y

IntroductionThe production of marine drugs in its normal habitats is often low and depends greatly on ecological conditions. Chemical synthesis of marine drugs is not economically feasible owing to their complex structures. Biotechnology application via elicitation represents a promising tool to enhance metabolites yield that has yet to be explored in soft corals.ObjectivesStudy the elicitation impact of salicylic acid (SA) and six analogues in addition to a systemic acquired resistance inducer on secondary metabolites accumulation in the soft coral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi along with the symbiont zooxanthellae and if SA elicitation effect is extended to other coral species S. glaucum and Lobophyton pauciliforum.MethodsPost elicitation in the three corals and zooxanthella, metabolites were extracted and analyzed via UHPLC-MS coupled with chemometric tools.ResultsMultivariate data analysis of the UHPLC-MS data set revealed clear segregation of SA, amino-SA, and acetyl-SA elicited samples. An increased level ca. 6- and 8-fold of the diterpenes viz., sarcophytonolide I, sarcophine and a C28-sterol, was observed in SA and amino-SA groups, respectively. Post elicitation, the level of diepoxy-cembratriene increased 1.5-fold and 2.4-fold in 1 mM SA, and acetyl-SA (aspirin) treatment groups, respectively. S. glaucum and Lobophyton pauciliforum showed a 2-fold increase of diepoxy-cembratriene levels.ConclusionThese results suggest that SA could function as a general and somewhat selective diterpene inducing signaling molecule in soft corals. Structural consideration reveals initial structure–activity relationship (SAR) in SA derivatives that seem important for efficient diterpene and sterol elicitation.

Michels, B.; Zwaka, H.; Bartels, R.; Lushchak, O.; Franke, K.; Endres, T.; Fendt, M.; Song, I.; Bakr, M.; Budragchaa, T.; Westermann, B.; Mishra, D.; Eschbach, C.; Schreyer, S.; Lingnau, A.; Vahl, C.; Hilker, M.; Menzel, R.; Kähne, T.; Leßmann, V.; Dityatev, A.; Wessjohann, L.; Gerber, B. Memory enhancement by ferulic acid ester across species Sci Adv 4, eaat6994, (2018) DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aat6994

Cognitive impairments can be devastating for quality of life, and thus, preventing or counteracting them is of great value. To this end, the present study exploits the potential of the plant Rhodiola rosea and identifies the constituent ferulic acid eicosyl ester [icosyl-(2E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-prop-2-enoate (FAE-20)] as a memory enhancer. We show that food supplementation with dried root material from R. rosea dose-dependently improves odor-taste reward associative memory scores in larval Drosophila and prevents the age-related decline of this appetitive memory in adult flies. Task-relevant sensorimotor faculties remain unaltered. From a parallel approach, a list of candidate compounds has been derived, including R. rosea–derived FAE-20. Here, we show that both R. rosea–derived FAE-20 and synthetic FAE-20 are effective as memory enhancers in larval Drosophila. Synthetic FAE-20 also partially compensates for age-related memory decline in adult flies, as well as genetically induced early-onset loss of memory function in young flies. Furthermore, it increases excitability in mouse hippocampal CA1 neurons, leads to more stable context-shock aversive associative memory in young adult (3-month-old) mice, and increases memory scores in old (>2-year-old) mice. Given these effects, and given the utility of R. rosea—the plant from which we discovered FAE-20—as a memory enhancer, these results may hold potential for clinical applications.

Walther, T.; Herzog, R.; Kaluđerović, M. R.; Wagner, C.; Schmidt, H.; Kaluđerović, G. N. Traceable platinum(II) complexes with alkylene diamine-derived ligands: synthesis, characterization and in vitro studies J Coord Chem 71, 243-257, (2018) DOI: 10.1080/00958972.2018.1431392

Diiodido- (6a/6b) and dichloridoplatinum(II) complexes (7a/7b) with fluorescent ligands 2-[(2-aminoethyl)amino]ethyl-2-(methylamino)benzoate (5a) and 2-amino-1-(aminoethyl)ethyl-2-(methylamino)benzoate (5b) were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, ESI-MS analysis, fluorescence spectrometry, as well as 1H, 13C, and 195Pt NMR spectroscopy. All compounds have been tested against A2780 ovarian cancer, A549 lung carcinoma, and HT-29 colon cancer cell lines using sulforhodamine-B assay. The activity increased from ligand precursors, diiodido- to dichloridoplatinum(II) complexes, except against HT-29 cell line where diiodido and dichlorido expressed similar activity. These compounds enter the tumor cells and emit a bright fluorescence at ca. 470 nm, mainly targeting nuclei.

Farag, M. A.; Labib, R. M.; Noleto, C.; Porzel, A.; Wessjohann, L. A. NMR approach for the authentication of 10 cinnamon spice accessions analyzed via chemometric tools LWT 90, 491-498, (2018) DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2017.12.069

Quantitative NMR metabolomics approach was developed to distinguish two cinnamon species (Ceylon Cinnamon, Cinnamomum verum and Chinese Cinnamon, Cinnamomum cassia) that are interchangeably used in food products. The results of the analyses of 10 bark accessions revealed for 9 key sensory metabolites, with (E)-cinnamaldehyde as the major form. Multivariate data analyses revealed for eugenol leading presence in C. verum versus fatty acid enrichment in C. cassia. This research provides the first NMR metabolites fingerprinting of the two major cinnamon resources. Compounds related to C. verum aroma and taste were identified and quantified that can be utilized as markers for the authentication of this valuable drug. Novel insight on metabolites mediating for C. verum antidiabetic effect is also presented.

Mijatović, S.; Bramanti, A.; Nicoletti, F.; Fagone, P.; Kaluđerović, G. N.; Maksimović-Ivanić, D. Naturally occurring compounds in differentiation based therapy of cancer Biotechnol Adv 36, 1622-1632, (2018) DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.04.001

Differentiation of cancer cells entails the reversion of phenotype from malignant to the original. The conversion to cell type characteristic for another tissue is named transdifferentiation. Differentiation/transdifferentiation of malignant cells in high grade tumor mass could serve as a nonaggressive approach that potentially limits tumor progression and augments chemosensitivity. While this therapeutic strategy is already being used for treatment of hematological cancers, its feasibility for solid malignancies is still debated. We will presently discuss the natural compounds that show these properties, with focus on anthraquinones from Aloe vera, Senna, Rheum sp. and hop derived prenylflavonoids.

Moreno, M.; Zacarias, A.; Porzel, A.; Velasquez, L.; Gonzalez, G.; Alegría-Arcos, M.; Gonzalez-Nilo, F.; Gross, E. K. U. IR and NMR spectroscopic correlation of enterobactin by DFT Spectrochim Acta A 198, 264-277, (2018) DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2018.02.060

Emerging and re-emerging epidemic diseases pose an ongoing threat to global health. Currently, Enterobactin and Enterobactin derivatives have gained interest, owing to their potential application in the pharmaceutical field. As it is known [J. Am. Chem. Soc (1979) 101, 20, 6097–6104], Enterobactin (H6EB) is an efficient iron carrier synthesized and secreted by many microbial species. In order to facilitate the elucidation of enterobactin and its analogues, here we propose the creation of a H6EB standard set using Density Functional Theory Infrared (IR) and NMR spectra. We used two exchange-correlation (xc) functionals (PBE including long-range corrections LC-PBE and mPW1), 2 basis sets (QZVP and 6-31G(d)) and 2 grids (fine and ultrafine) for most of the H6EB structures dependent of dihedral angles. The results show a significant difference between the OH and NH bands, while the CO amide and O(CO) IR bands are often found on top of each other. The NMR DFT calculations show a strong dependence on the xc functional, basis set, and grid used for the H6EB structure. Calculated 1H and 13C NMR spectra enable the effect of the solvent to be understood in the context of the experimental measurements. The good agreement between the experimental and the calculated spectra using LC-PBE/QZVP and ultrafine grid suggest the possibility of the systems reported here to be considered as a standard set. The dependence of electrostatic potential and frontier orbitals with the catecholamide dihedral angles of H6EB is described. The matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of the flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) of H6EB is also reported of manner to enrich the knowledge about its reactivity.
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