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Publikationen - Natur- und Wirkstoffchemie

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Publikation

Matern, A.; Böttcher, C.; Eschen-Lippold, L.; Westermann, B.; Smolka, U.; Döll, S.; Trempel, F.; Aryal, B.; Scheel, D.; Geisler, M.; Rosahl, S. A substrate of the ABC transporter PEN3 stimulates bacterial flagellin (flg22)-induced callose deposition in Arabidopsis thaliana J Biol Chem 294, 6857-6870, (2019) DOI: 10.1074/jbc.RA119.007676

Nonhost resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana against Phytophthora infestans, a filamentous eukaryotic microbe and the causal agent of potato late blight, is based on a multilayered defense system. Arabidopsis thaliana controls pathogen entry through the penetration-resistance genes PEN2 and PEN3, encoding an atypical myrosinase and an ABC transporter, respectively, required for synthesis and export of unknown indole compounds. To identify pathogen-elicited leaf surface metabolites and further unravel nonhost resistance in Arabidopsis, we performed untargeted metabolite profiling by incubating a P. infestans zoospore suspension on leaves of WT or pen3 mutant Arabidopsis plants. Among the plant-secreted metabolites, 4-methoxyindol-3-yl-methanol and S-(4-methoxy-indol-3-yl-methyl) cysteine were detected in spore suspensions recollected from WT plants, but at reduced levels from the pen3 mutant plants. In both whole-cell and microsome-based assays, 4-methoxyindol-3-yl-methanol was transported in a PEN3-dependent manner, suggesting that this compound is a PEN3 substrate. The syntheses of both compounds were dependent on functional PEN2 and phytochelatin synthase 1. None of these compounds inhibited mycelial growth of P. infestans in vitro. Of note, exogenous application of 4-methoxyindol-3-yl methanol slightly elevated cytosolic Ca2+ levels and enhanced callose deposition in hydathodes of seedlings treated with a bacterial pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP), flagellin (flg22). Loss of flg22-induced callose deposition in leaves of pen3 seedlings was partially reverted by the addition of 4-methoxyindol-3-yl methanol. In conclusion, we have identified a specific indole compound that is a substrate for PEN3 and contributes to the plant defense response against microbial pathogens.
Publikation

Westphal, L.; Strehmel, N.; Eschen-Lippold, L.; Bauer, N.; Westermann, B.; Rosahl, S.; Scheel, D.; Lee, J. pH effects on plant calcium fluxes: lessons from acidification-mediated calcium elevation induced by the γ-glutamyl-leucine dipeptide identified from Phytophthora infestans Sci Rep 9, 4733, (2019) DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-41276-0

Cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyt) elevation is an early signaling response upon exposure to pathogen-derived molecules (so-called microbe-associated molecular patterns, MAMPs) and has been successfully used as a quantitative read-out in genetic screens to identify MAMP receptors or their associated components. Here, we isolated and identified by mass spectrometry the dipeptide γ-Glu-Leu as a component of a Phytophthora infestans mycelium extract that induces [Ca2+]cyt elevation. Treatment of Arabidopsis seedlings with synthetic γ-Glu-Leu revealed stimulatory effects on defense signaling, including a weak enhancement of the expression of some MAMP-inducible genes or affecting the refractory period to a second MAMP elicitation. However, γ-Glu-Leu is not a classical MAMP since pH adjustment abolished these activities and importantly, the observed effects of γ-Glu-Leu could be recapitulated by mimicking extracellular acidification. Thus, although γ-Glu-Leu can act as a direct agonist of calcium sensing receptors in animal systems, the Ca2+-mobilizing activity in plants reported here is due to acidification. Low pH also shapes the Ca2+ signature of well-studied MAMPs (e.g. flg22) or excitatory amino acids such as glutamate. Overall, this work serves as a cautionary reminder that in defense signaling studies where Ca2+ flux measurements are concerned, it is important to monitor and consider the effects of pH.
Publikation

Loesche, A.; Kahnt, M.; Serbian, I.; Brandt, W.; Csuk, R. Triterpene-Based Carboxamides Act as Good Inhibitors of Butyrylcholinesterase Molecules 24, 948, (2019) DOI: 10.3390/molecules24050948

A set of overall 40 carboxamides was prepared from five different natural occurring triterpenoids including oleanolic, ursolic, maslinic, betulinic, and platanic acid. All of which were derived from ethylene diamine holding an additional substituent connected to the ethylene diamine group. These derivatives were evaluated regarding their inhibitory activity of the enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) employing Ellman’s assay. We further determined the type of inhibition and inhibition constants. Carboxamides derived from platanic acid have been shown to be potent and selective BChE inhibitors. Especially the mixed-type inhibitor (3β)-N-(2-pyrrolidin-1-ylethyl)-3-acetyloxy-20-oxo-30-norlupan-28-amide (35) showed a remarkably low Ki of 0.07 ± 0.01 µM (Ki′ = 2.38 ± 0.48 µM) for the inhibition of BChE.
Publikation

Budragchaa, T.; Westermann, B.; Wessjohann, L. A. Multicomponent synthesis of α-acylamino and α-acyloxy amide derivatives of desmycosin and their activity against gram-negative bacteria Bioorg Med Chem 27, 3237-3247, (2019) DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2019.05.046

Bacterial resistance to the existing drugs requires constant development of new antibiotics. Developing compounds active against gram-negative bacteria thereby is one of the more challenging tasks. Among the many approaches to develop successful antibacterials, medicinal chemistry driven evolution of existing successful antibiotics is considered to be the most effective one. Towards this end, the C-20 aldehyde moiety of desmycosin was modified into α-acylamino and α-acyloxy amide functionalities using isonitrile-based Ugi and Passerini reactions, aiming for enhanced antibacterial and physicochemical properties. The desired compounds were obtained in 45–93% yield under mild conditions. The antibacterial activity of the resulting conjugates was tested against gram-negative Aliivibrio fischeri. The antibiotic strength is mostly governed by the amine component introduced. Thus, methylamine derived desmycosin bis-amide 4 displayed an enhanced inhibition rate vs. desmycosin (99% vs. 83% at 1 µM). Derivatives with long acyclic or bulky amine and isocyanide Ugi components reduced potency, whereas carboxylic acid reagents with longer chain length afforded increased bioactivity. In Passerini 3-component products, the butyric ester amide 22 displayed a higher activity (90% at 1 µM) than the mother compound desmycosin (2).
Publikation

Eisenschmidt‐Bönn, D.; Schneegans, N.; Backenköhler, A.; Wittstock, U.; Brandt, W. Structural diversification during glucosinolate breakdown: mechanisms of thiocyanate, epithionitrile and simple nitrile formation Plant J 99, 329-343, (2019) DOI: 10.1111/tpj.14327

Secondary metabolism is characterized by an impressive structural diversity. Here, we have addressed the mechanisms underlying structural diversification upon damage‐induced activation of glucosinolates, a group of thioglucosides found in the Brassicales. The classical pathway of glucosinolate activation involves myrosinase‐catalyzed hydrolysis and rearrangement of the aglucone to an isothiocyanate. Plants of the Brassicaceae possess specifier proteins, i.e. non‐heme iron proteins that promote the formation of alternative products by interfering with this reaction through unknown mechanisms. We have used structural information available for the thiocyanate‐forming protein from Thlaspi arvense (TaTFP), to test the impact of loops protruding at one side of its β‐propeller structure on product formation using the allylglucosinolate aglucone as substrate. In silico loop structure sampling and semiempirical quantum mechanical calculations identified a 3L2 loop conformation that enabled the Fe2+ cofactor to interact with the double bond of the allyl side chain. Only this arrangement enabled the formation of allylthiocyanate, a specific product of TaTFP. Simulation of 3,4‐epithiobutane nitrile formation, the second known product of TaTFP, required an alternative substrate docking arrangement in which Fe2+ interacts with the aglucone thiolate. In agreement with these results, substitution of 3L2 amino acid residues involved in the conformational change as well as exchange of critical amino acid residues of neighboring loops affected the allylthiocyanate versus epithionitrile proportion obtained upon myrosinase‐catalyzed allylglucosinolate hydrolysis in the presence of TaTFP in vitro. Based on these insights, we propose that specifier proteins are catalysts that might be classified as Fe2+‐dependent lyases.
Publikation

D’Eustacchio, D.; Centorame, M.; Fanfani, A.; Senczuk, G.; Jiménez-Alemán, G. H.; Vasco-Vidal, A.; Méndez, Y.; Ehrlich, A.; Wessjohann, L.; Francioso, A. Iridoids and volatile pheromones of Tapinoma darioi ants: chemical differences to the closely related species Tapinoma magnum Chemoecology 29, 51-60, (2019) DOI: 10.1007/s00049-018-00275-9

Tapinoma species, and more general dolichoderine ants, are able to produce a variety of volatile compounds they use as chemical defense, alarm, and communication pheromones. Among these, iridoids and volatile ketones are the predominant molecule classes produced by the anal glands of these ants. A recent taxonomic revision of the genus Tapinoma in Europe revealed that the supercolonial species Tapinoma nigerrimum consists of a complex of four cryptic species. Two of them, Tapinoma magnum and the newly described Tapinoma darioi, are closely related species that evolutionary diverged recently. In this work, we determine and characterize the chemical profile of pheromones and volatile compounds of two Tapinoma species. From a chemical point of view, T. darioi and T. magnum show both qualitative and quantitative differences in the pheromones produced, supporting the taxonomic revision of the T. nigerrimum complex. Our data confirm T. darioi and T. magnum as separate species also from a biochemical point of view demonstrating the value of chemotaxonomy as a suitable tool for integrative studies of species differentiation even for closely related taxa.
Publikation

Ricardo, M. G.; Llanes, D.; Wessjohann, L. A.; Rivera, D. G. Introducing the Petasis Reaction for Late-Stage Multicomponent Diversification, Labeling, and Stapling of Peptides Angew Chem Int Ed 58, 2700-2704, (2019) DOI: 10.1002/anie.201812620

For the first time, the Petasis (borono‐Mannich) reaction is employed for the multicomponent labeling and stapling of peptides. The report includes the solid‐phase derivatization of peptides at the N‐terminus, Lys, and Nϵ‐MeLys side‐chains by an on‐resin Petasis reaction with variation of the carbonyl and boronic acid components. Peptides were simultaneously functionalized with aryl/vinyl substituents bearing fluorescent/affinity tags and oxo components such as dihydroxyacetone, glyceraldehyde, glyoxylic acid, and aldoses, thus encompassing a powerful complexity‐generating approach without changing the charge of the peptides. The multicomponent stapling was conducted in solution by linking Nϵ‐MeLys or Orn side‐chains, positioned at i, i+7 and i, i+4, with aryl tethers, while hydroxy carbonyl moieties were introduced as exocyclic fragments. The good efficiency and diversity oriented character of these methods show prospects for peptide drug discovery and chemical biology.
Publikation

Ricardo, M. G.; Llanes, D.; Wessjohann, L. A.; Rivera, D. G. Introducing the Petasis Reaction for Late-Stage Multicomponent Diversification, Labeling, and Stapling of Peptides Angew Chem 131, 2726-2730, (2019) DOI: 10.1002/ange.201812620

For the first time, the Petasis (borono‐Mannich) reaction is employed for the multicomponent labeling and stapling of peptides. The report includes the solid‐phase derivatization of peptides at the N‐terminus, Lys, and Nϵ‐MeLys side‐chains by an on‐resin Petasis reaction with variation of the carbonyl and boronic acid components. Peptides were simultaneously functionalized with aryl/vinyl substituents bearing fluorescent/affinity tags and oxo components such as dihydroxyacetone, glyceraldehyde, glyoxylic acid, and aldoses, thus encompassing a powerful complexity‐generating approach without changing the charge of the peptides. The multicomponent stapling was conducted in solution by linking Nϵ‐MeLys or Orn side‐chains, positioned at i, i+7 and i, i+4, with aryl tethers, while hydroxy carbonyl moieties were introduced as exocyclic fragments. The good efficiency and diversity oriented character of these methods show prospects for peptide drug discovery and chemical biology.
Publikation

Nganou, B. K.; Mbaveng, A. T.; Fobofou, S. A.; Fankam, A. G.; Bitchagno, G. T. M.; Simo Mpetga, J. D.; Wessjohann, L. A.; Kuete, V.; Efferth, T.; Tane, P. Furoquinolines and dihydrooxazole alkaloids with cytotoxic activity from the stem bark of Araliopsis soyauxii Fitoterapia 133, 193-199, (2019) DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2019.01.003

Two new furoquinoline alkaloids, maculine B (1) and kokusaginine B (2) and one new dihydrooxazole alkaloid, veprisazole (3), along with four known compounds namely, N13-methyl-3-methoxyrutaecarpine (4), flindersiamine (5), skimmianine (6) and tilianin (7) were isolated from the methanol extract of the stem bark of Araliopsis soyauxii Engl. by various chromatographic methods. Their structures were determined using spectrometry and spectroscopic techniques including NMR and MS. The cytotoxicity of the new compounds compared to that of doxorubicin, the reference anticancer compound, was determined on a panel of nine cancer cell lines including sensitive and drug resistant phenotypes. The three previously undescribed alkaloids displayed selective activities. Maculine B (1), the most active one among the newly described compounds, exhibited IC50 below 30 μM against CCRF-CEM leukemia and U87MG glioblastoma cells.
Publikation

Vasco, A. V.; Mendez, Y.; Porzel, A.; Balbach, J.; Wessjohann, L. A.; Rivera, D. G. A Multicomponent Stapling Approach to Exocyclic Functionalized Helical Peptides: Adding Lipids, Sugar, PEGs, Labels and Handles to the Lactam Bridge Bioconjugate Chem 30, 253-259, (2019) DOI: 10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.8b00906

Peptide stapling is traditionally used to lock peptide conformations into α-helical structures using a variety of macrocyclization chemistries. In an endeavor to add a diversity-generating tool to this repertoire, we introduce a multicomponent stapling approach enabling the simultaneous stabilization of helical secondary structures and the exocyclic N-functionalization of the side chain-tethering lactam bridge. This is accomplished by means of a novel solid-phase methodology comprising, for the first time, the on-resin Ugi reaction-based macrocyclization of peptide side chains bearing amino and carboxylic acid groups. The exocyclic diversity elements arise from the isocyanide component used in the Ugi multicomponent stapling protocol, which allows for the incorporation of relevant fragments such as lipids, sugars, polyethylene glycol, fluorescent labels, and reactive handles. We prove the utility of such exocyclic reactive groups in the bioconjugation of a maleimide-armed lactam-bridged peptide to a carrier protein. The on-resin multicomponent stapling proved efficient for the installation of not only one, but also two consecutive lactam bridges having either identical or dissimilar N-functionalities. The easy access to helical peptides with a diverse set of exocyclic functionalities shows prospect for applications in peptide drug discovery and chemical biology.
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