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Publikationen - Natur- und Wirkstoffchemie

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Publikation

Guerra, T.; Schilling, S.; Hake, K.; Gorzolka, K.; Sylvester, F.-P.; Conrads, B.; Westermann, B.; Romeis, T. Calcium‐dependent protein kinase 5 links calcium‐signaling with N‐Hydroxy‐L‐pipecolic acid‐ and SARD1‐dependent immune memory in systemic acquired resistance New Phytol 225, 310-325, (2020) DOI: 10.1111/nph.16147

Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) prepares infected plants for faster and stronger defense activation upon subsequent attacks. SAR requires an information relay from primary infection to distal tissue and the initiation and maintenance of a self‐maintaining phytohormone salicylic acid (SA)‐defense loop.In spatial and temporal resolution, we show that calcium‐dependent protein kinase CPK5 contributes to immunity and SAR. In local basal resistance, CPK5 functions upstream of SA synthesis, perception, and signaling. In systemic tissue, CPK5 signaling leads to accumulation of SAR‐inducing metabolite N‐hydroxy‐L‐pipecolic acid (NHP) and SAR marker genes, including Systemic Acquired Resistance Deficient 1 (SARD1)Plants of increased CPK5, but not CPK6, signaling display an ‘enhanced SAR’ phenotype towards a secondary bacterial infection. In the sard1‐1 background, CPK5‐mediated basal resistance is still mounted, but NHP concentration is reduced and enhanced SAR is lost.The biochemical analysis estimated CPK5 half maximal kinase activity for calcium, K50 [Ca2+], to be c. 100 nM, close to the cytoplasmic resting level. This low threshold uniquely qualifies CPK5 to decode subtle changes in calcium, a prerequisite to signal relay and onset and maintenance of priming at later time points in distal tissue. Our data explain why CPK5 functions as a hub in basal and systemic plant immunity.
Publikation

Ricardo, M. G.; Moya, C. G.; Pérez, C. S.; Porzel, A.; Wessjohann, L. A.; Rivera, D. G. Improved Stability and Tunable Functionalization of Parallel β-Sheets via Multicomponent N-Alkylation of the Turn Moiety Angew Chem Int Ed 59, 259-263, (2020) DOI: 10.1002/anie.201912095

In contrast to the myriad of methods available to produce α‐helices and antiparallel β‐sheets in synthetic peptides, just a few are known for the construction of stable, non‐cyclic parallel β‐sheets. Herein, we report an efficient on‐resin approach for the assembly of parallel β‐sheet peptides in which the N‐alkylated turn moiety enhances the stability and gives access to a variety of functionalizations without modifying the parallel strands. The key synthetic step of this strategy is the multicomponent construction of an N‐alkylated turn using the Ugi reaction on varied isocyano‐resins. This four‐component process assembles the orthogonally protected turn fragment and incorporates handles serving for labeling/conjugation purposes or for reducing peptide aggregation. NMR and circular dichroism analyses confirm the better‐structured and more stable parallel β‐sheets in the N‐alkylated peptides compared to the non‐functionalized variants.
Publikation

Ricardo, M. G.; Moya, C. G.; Pérez, C. S.; Porzel, A.; Wessjohann, L. A.; Rivera, D. G. Improved Stability and Tunable Functionalization of Parallel β‐Sheets via Multicomponent N‐Alkylation of the Turn Moiety Angew Chem 132, 265-269, (2020) DOI: 10.1002/ange.201912095

In contrast to the myriad of methods available to produce α‐helices and antiparallel β‐sheets in synthetic peptides, just a few are known for the construction of stable, non‐cyclic parallel β‐sheets. Herein, we report an efficient on‐resin approach for the assembly of parallel β‐sheet peptides in which the N‐alkylated turn moiety enhances the stability and gives access to a variety of functionalizations without modifying the parallel strands. The key synthetic step of this strategy is the multicomponent construction of an N‐alkylated turn using the Ugi reaction on varied isocyano‐resins. This four‐component process assembles the orthogonally protected turn fragment and incorporates handles serving for labeling/conjugation purposes or for reducing peptide aggregation. NMR and circular dichroism analyses confirm the better‐structured and more stable parallel β‐sheets in the N‐alkylated peptides compared to the non‐functionalized variants.
Publikation

Zoufal, V.; Wanek, T.; Krohn, M.; Mairinger, S.; Filip, T.; Sauberer, M.; Stanek, J.; Pekar, T.; Bauer, M.; Pahnke, J.; Langer, O. Age dependency of cerebral P-glycoprotein function in wild-type and APPPS1 mice measured with PET J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 40, 150-162, (2020) DOI: 10.1177/0271678X18806640

P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) is an efflux transporter at the blood–brain barrier (BBB), which mediates clearance of beta-amyloid (Aβ) from brain into blood. We used (R)-[11C]verapamil PET in combination with partial P-gp inhibition with tariquidar to measure cerebral P-gp function in a beta-amyloidosis mouse model (APPtg) and in control mice at three different ages (50, 200 and 380 days). Following tariquidar pre-treatment (4 mg/kg), whole brain-to-plasma radioactivity concentration ratios (Kp,brain) were significantly higher in APPtg than in wild-type mice aged 50 days, pointing to decreased cerebral P-gp function. Moreover, we found an age-dependent decrease in cerebral P-gp function in both wild-type and APPtg mice of up to −50%. Alterations in P-gp function were more pronounced in Aβ-rich brain regions (hippocampus, cortex) than in a control region with negligible Aβ load (cerebellum). PET results were confirmed by immunohistochemical staining of P-gp in brain microvessels. Our results confirm previous findings of reduced P-gp function in Alzheimer’s disease mouse models and show that our PET protocol possesses adequate sensitivity to measure these functional changes in vivo. Our PET protocol may find use in clinical studies to test the efficacy of drugs to induce P-gp function at the human BBB to enhance Aβ clearance.
Publikation

El Amerany, F.; Meddich, A.; Wahbi, S.; Porzel, A.; Taourirte, M.; Rhazi, M.; Hause, B. Foliar Application of Chitosan Increases Tomato Growth and Influences Mycorrhization and Expression of Endochitinase-Encoding Genes Int J Mol Sci 21, 535, (2020) DOI: 10.3390/ijms21020535

Nowadays, applying bio-organic fertilizer (e.g., chitosan, Ch) or integrating beneficial microorganisms (e.g., arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, AMF) are among the successful strategies to promote plant growth. Here, the effect of two application modes of Ch (foliar spray or root treatment) and Ch-derived nanoparticles (NPs) on tomato plants colonized with the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis were analyzed, thereby focusing on plant biomass, flowering and mycorrhization. An increase of shoot biomass and flower number was observed in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) plants sprayed with Ch. The interaction with AMF, however, was reduced as shown by decreased mycorrhization rates and AM-specific gene expression. To get insights into Ch effect on mycorrhization, levels of sugars, jasmonates, abscisic acid, and the expression of two chitinase-encoding genes were determined in mycorrhizal roots. Ch had no effect on sugar and phytohormone levels, but the reduced mycorrhization was correlated with down- and upregulated expression of Chi3 and Chi9, respectively. In contrast, application of NPs to leaves and Ch applied to the soil did not show any effect, neither on mycorrhization rate nor on growth of mycorrhizal plants. Concluding, Ch application to leaves enhanced plant growth and flowering and reduced interaction with AMF, whereas root treatment did not affect these parameters.
Publikation

Leonova, T.; Popova, V.; Tsarev, A.; Henning, C.; Antonova, K.; Rogovskaya, N.; Vikhnina, M.; Baldensperger, T.; Soboleva, A.; Dinastia, E.; Dorn, M.; Shiroglasova, O.; Grishina, T.; Balcke, G. U.; Ihling, C.; Smolikova, G.; Medvedev, S.; Zhukov, V. A.; Babakov, V.; Tikhonovich, I. A.; Glomb, M. A.; Bilova, T.; Frolov, A. Does Protein Glycation Impact on the Drought-Related Changes in Metabolism and Nutritional Properties of Mature Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Seeds? Int J Mol Sci 21, 567, (2020) DOI: 10.3390/ijms21020567

Protein glycation is usually referred to as an array of non-enzymatic post-translational modifications formed by reducing sugars and carbonyl products of their degradation. The resulting advanced glycation end products (AGEs) represent a heterogeneous group of covalent adducts, known for their pro-inflammatory effects in mammals, and impacting on pathogenesis of metabolic diseases and ageing. In plants, AGEs are the markers of tissue ageing and response to environmental stressors, the most prominent of which is drought. Although water deficit enhances protein glycation in leaves, its effect on seed glycation profiles is still unknown. Moreover, the effect of drought on biological activities of seed protein in mammalian systems is still unstudied with respect to glycation. Therefore, here we address the effects of a short-term drought on the patterns of seed protein-bound AGEs and accompanying alterations in pro-inflammatory properties of seed protein in the context of seed metabolome dynamics. A short-term drought, simulated as polyethylene glycol-induced osmotic stress and applied at the stage of seed filling, resulted in the dramatic suppression of primary seed metabolism, although the secondary metabolome was minimally affected. This was accompanied with significant suppression of NF-kB activation in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells after a treatment with protein hydrolyzates, isolated from the mature seeds of drought-treated plants. This effect could not be attributed to formation of known AGEs. Most likely, the prospective anti-inflammatory effect of short-term drought is related to antioxidant effect of unknown secondary metabolite protein adducts, or down-regulation of unknown plant-specific AGEs due to suppression of energy metabolism during seed filling.
Publikation

Drača, D.; Mijatović, S.; Krajnović, T.; Kaluđerović, G. N.; Wessjohann, L. A.; Maksimović-Ivanić, D. Synthetic Tubulysin Derivative, Tubugi-1, Against Invasive Melanoma Cells: The Cell Death Triangle Anticancer Res 39, 5403-5415, (2019) DOI: 10.21873/anticanres.13734

Background/Aim: Tubugi-1 is a more stable and accessible synthetic counterpart of natural tubulysins. This study aimed to evaluate its cytotoxic potential against anaplastic human melanoma cells. Materials and Methods: The viability of A-375 cells was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and crystal violet assay. The type of cell death and proliferative rate were investigated using flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy, while the molecular background was evaluated by western blot. Results: Tubugi-1 reduced the viability of A-375 cells, inducing massive micronucleation, followed by augmented expression of inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB and caspase-2, typical of a mitotic catastrophe. Disturbed proliferation and G2M block with prominent caspase activity, weakened the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 and B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X transient up-regulation, coexisted with intensive autophagy. Specific inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine resulted in conversion from mitotic catastrophe to rapid apoptosis. Conclusion: Multilevel anticancer action of tubugi-1 is extended by co-application of an autophagy inhibitor, giving a new dimension in further preclinical advancement of this potential agent.
Publikation

Hoffmann, A.; Nong, J. P.; Porzel, A.; Bremer, M.; Fischer, S. Modification of Lignoboost Kraft Lignin from softwoods with dihydroxybenzenes React Funct Polym 142, 112-118, (2019) DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2019.06.011

Lignin, a component of the cell walls of plants and the second most abundant biopolymer has long been regarded as disturbing substance in pulp production by paper industry. This view has changed in recent decades. Thus, lignin is increasingly regarded as an alternative to crude oil. Tuned and modified lignins have suitable properties to use them as building blocks for various applications as well as for the production of basic chemicals. By modifying lignin, its reactivity and uniformity can be increased. In addition, properties of the lignin can be changed and influenced by selective modification. By a solvent-free modification with dihydroxybenzene, aliphatic OH groups of the lignin side chain can be removed and covalent CC bonds to the aromatics can be formed. At the same time, aryl-alkyl ether cleavage occurs, which reduces the molecular weight of lignin by about one third. In addition, ongoing reactions result in the reduction in the molecular weight distribution. All this leads to a more uniform and reactive lignin which is interesting as a precursor for various applications. This work provides a deeper understanding of ongoing reactions with dihydroxybenzenes and the structure of modified lignins.
Publikation

Hussain, H.; Green, I. R.; Saleem, M.; Raza, M. L.; Nazir, M. Therapeutic Potential of Iridoid Derivatives: Patent Review Inventions 4, 29, (2019) DOI: 10.3390/inventions4020029

Iridoids belong to a family of monoterpenoids comprising the cyclopentan[c]-pyran system; this class of compounds offers a wide range of biological effects, namely antileishmanial, anticancer, antiplasmodial, and anti-inflammatory potency. To date, a large number of biologically active iridoid derivatives have been reported from various plant families, including Rubiaceae, Plantaginaceae, Scrophulariaceae, and Verbenaceae. Furthermore, iridoids have the potential to form conjugates with other anticancer, antidiabetic, antileishmanial, and antimalarial drugs which synergistically have the potential to increase their effects. Additionally, future research should focus on the synthesis of halo analogs as well as preparing homo dimers or heterodimers of iridoids, since these might quite conceivably possess an increased bioactivity.
Publikation

Farag, M. A.; El Senousy, A. S.; El-Ahmady, S. H.; Porzel, A.; Wessjohann, L. A. Comparative metabolome-based classification of Senna drugs: a prospect for phyto-equivalency of its different commercial products Metabolomics 15, 80, (2019) DOI: 10.1007/s11306-019-1538-x

IntroductionThe demand to develop efficient and reliable analytical methods for the quality control of nutraceuticals is on the rise, together with an increase in the legal requirements for safe and consistent levels of its active principles.ObjectiveTo establish a reliable model for the quality control of widely used Senna preparations used as laxatives and assess its phyto-equivalency.MethodsA comparative metabolomics approach via NMR and MS analyses was employed for the comprehensive measurement of metabolites and analyzed using chemometrics.ResultsUnder optimized conditions, 30 metabolites were simultaneously identified and quantified including anthraquinones, bianthrones, acetophenones, flavonoid conjugates, naphthalenes, phenolics, and fatty acids. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to define relative metabolite differences among Senna preparations. Furthermore, quantitative 1H NMR (qHNMR) was employed to assess absolute metabolites levels in preparations. Results revealed that 6-hydroxy musizin or tinnevellin were correlated with active metabolites levels, suggesting the use of either of these naphthalene glycosides as markers for official Senna drugs authentication.ConclusionThis study provides the first comparative metabolomics approach utilizing NMR and UPLC–MS to reveal for secondary metabolite compositional differences in Senna preparations that could readily be applied as a reliable quality control model for its analysis.
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