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Publikationen - Natur- und Wirkstoffchemie

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Fechner, J.; Kaufmann, M.; Herz, C.; Eisenschmidt, D.; Lamy, E.; Kroh, L. W.; Hanschen, F. S. The major glucosinolate hydrolysis product in rocket (Eruca sativa L.), sativin, is 1,3-thiazepane-2-thione: Elucidation of structure, bioactivity, and stability compared to other rocket isothiocyanates Food Chem 261, 57-65, (2018) DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.04.023

Rocket is rich in glucosinolates and valued for its hot and spicy taste. Here we report the structure elucidation, bioactivity, and stability of the mainly formed glucosinolate hydrolysis product, namely sativin, which was formerly thought to be 4-mercaptobutyl isothiocyanate. However, by NMR characterization we revealed that sativin is in fact 1,3-thiazepane-2-thione, a tautomer of 4-mercaptobutyl isothiocyanate with 7-membered ring structure and so far unknown. This finding was further substantiated by conformation sampling using molecular modeling and total enthalpy calculation with density functional theory. During aqueous heat treatment sativin in general was quite stable, while the isothiocyanates erucin and sulforaphane were labile, having half-lives of 132 min and 56 min (pH 5, 100 °C), respectively. Moreover, using a WST-1 assay, we found that sativin did not reduce cell viability of HepG2 cells in a range of 0.3–30 µM, and, therefore, exhibited no cytotoxic effects in this cell line.

Matamoros, M. A.; Kim, A.; Peñuelas, M.; Ihling, C.; Griesser, E.; Hoffmann, R.; Fedorova, M.; Frolov, A.; Becana, M. Protein Carbonylation and Glycation in Legume Nodules Plant Physiol 177, 1510-1528, (2018) DOI: 10.1104/pp.18.00533

Nitrogen fixation is an agronomically and environmentally important process catalyzed by bacterial nitrogenase within legume root nodules. These unique symbiotic organs have high metabolic rates and produce large amounts of reactive oxygen species that may modify proteins irreversibly. Here, we examined two types of oxidative posttranslational modifications of nodule proteins: carbonylation, which occurs by direct oxidation of certain amino acids or by interaction with reactive aldehydes arising from cell membrane lipid peroxides; and glycation, which results from the reaction of Lys and Arg residues with reducing sugars or their auto-oxidation products. We used a strategy based on the enrichment of carbonylated peptides by affinity chromatography followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to identify 369 oxidized proteins in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) nodules. Of these, 238 corresponded to plant proteins and 131 to bacterial proteins. Lipid peroxidation products induced most carbonylation sites. This study also revealed that carbonylation has major effects on two key nodule proteins. Metal-catalyzed oxidation caused inactivation of malate dehydrogenase and aggregation of leghemoglobin. In addition, numerous glycated proteins were identified in vivo, including three key nodule proteins: sucrose synthase, glutamine synthetase, and glutamate synthase. Label-free quantification identified 10 plant proteins and 18 bacterial proteins as age-specifically glycated. Overall, our results suggest that the selective carbonylation or glycation of crucial proteins involved in nitrogen metabolism, transcriptional regulation, and signaling may constitute a mechanism to control cell metabolism and nodule senescence.

Walther, T.; Herzog, R.; Kaluđerović, M. R.; Wagner, C.; Schmidt, H.; Kaluđerović, G. N. Traceable platinum(II) complexes with alkylene diamine-derived ligands: synthesis, characterization and in vitro studies J Coord Chem 71, 243-257, (2018) DOI: 10.1080/00958972.2018.1431392

Diiodido- (6a/6b) and dichloridoplatinum(II) complexes (7a/7b) with fluorescent ligands 2-[(2-aminoethyl)amino]ethyl-2-(methylamino)benzoate (5a) and 2-amino-1-(aminoethyl)ethyl-2-(methylamino)benzoate (5b) were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, ESI-MS analysis, fluorescence spectrometry, as well as 1H, 13C, and 195Pt NMR spectroscopy. All compounds have been tested against A2780 ovarian cancer, A549 lung carcinoma, and HT-29 colon cancer cell lines using sulforhodamine-B assay. The activity increased from ligand precursors, diiodido- to dichloridoplatinum(II) complexes, except against HT-29 cell line where diiodido and dichlorido expressed similar activity. These compounds enter the tumor cells and emit a bright fluorescence at ca. 470 nm, mainly targeting nuclei.

Storck, S. E.; Hartz, A. M. S.; Bernard, J.; Wolf, A.; Kachlmeier, A.; Mahringer, A.; Weggen, S.; Pahnke, J.; Pietrzik, C. U. The concerted amyloid-beta clearance of LRP1 and ABCB1/P-gp across the blood-brain barrier is linked by PICALM Brain Behav Immun 73, 21-33, (2018) DOI: 10.1016/j.bbi.2018.07.017

The accumulation of neurotoxic amyloid-beta (Aβ) in the brain is a characteristic hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The blood-brain barrier (BBB) provides a large surface area and has been shown to be an important mediator for removal of brain Aβ. Both, the ABC transporter P-glycoprotein (ABCB1/P-gp) and the receptor low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) have been implicated to play crucial roles in Aβ efflux from brain. Here, with immunoprecipitation experiments, co-immunostainings and dual inhibition of ABCB1/P-gp and LRP1, we show that both proteins are functionally linked, mediating a concerted transcytosis of Aβ through endothelial cells. Late-onset AD risk factor Phosphatidylinositol binding clathrin assembly protein (PICALM) is associated with both ABCB1/P-gp and LRP1 representing a functional link and guiding both proteins through the brain endothelium. Together, our results give more mechanistic insight on Aβ transport across the BBB and show that the functional interplay of different clearance proteins is needed for the rapid removal of Aβ from the brain.

Latysheva, A.; Eeg Emblem, K.; Server, A.; Brandal, P.; Meling, T. R.; Pahnke, J.; Hald, J. K. Survival Associations Using Perfusion and Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients With Histologic and Genetic Defined Diffuse Glioma World Health Organization Grades II and III J Comput Assist Tomo 42, 807-815, (2018) DOI: 10.1097/RCT.0000000000000742

Objective According to the new World Health Organization 2016 classification for tumors of the central nervous system, 1p/19q codeletion defines the genetic hallmark that differentiates oligodendrogliomas from diffuse astrocytomas. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis can stratify survival in adult patients with genetic defined diffuse glioma grades II and III.Methods Sixty-seven patients with untreated diffuse gliomas World Health Organization grades II and III and known 1p/19q codeletion status were included retrospectively and analyzed using ADC and rCBV maps based on whole-tumor volume histograms. Overall survival and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed by using Kaplan-Meier and Cox survival analyses adjusted for known survival predictors.Results Significant longer PFS was associated with homogeneous rCBV distribution–higher rCBVpeak (median, 37 vs 26 months; hazard ratio [HR], 3.2; P = 0.02) in patients with astrocytomas, and heterogeneous rCBV distribution–lower rCBVpeak (median, 46 vs 37 months; HR, 5.3; P < 0.001) and higher rCBVmean (median, 44 vs 39 months; HR, 7.9; P = 0.003) in patients with oligodendrogliomas. Apparent diffusion coefficient parameters (ADCpeak, ADCmean) did not stratify PFS and overall survival.Conclusions Tumors with heterogeneous perfusion signatures and high average values were associated with longer PFS in patients with oligodendrogliomas. On the contrary, heterogeneous perfusion distribution was associated with poor outcome in patients with diffuse astrocytomas.

Moreno, M.; Zacarias, A.; Porzel, A.; Velasquez, L.; Gonzalez, G.; Alegría-Arcos, M.; Gonzalez-Nilo, F.; Gross, E. IR and NMR spectroscopic correlation of enterobactin by DFT Spectrochim Acta A 198, 264-277, (2018) DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2018.02.060

Emerging and re-emerging epidemic diseases pose an ongoing threat to global health. Currently, Enterobactin and Enterobactin derivatives have gained interest, owing to their potential application in the pharmaceutical field. As it is known [J. Am. Chem. Soc (1979) 101, 20, 6097–6104], Enterobactin (H6EB) is an efficient iron carrier synthesized and secreted by many microbial species. In order to facilitate the elucidation of enterobactin and its analogues, here we propose the creation of a H6EB standard set using Density Functional Theory Infrared (IR) and NMR spectra. We used two exchange-correlation (xc) functionals (PBE including long-range corrections LC-PBE and mPW1), 2 basis sets (QZVP and 6-31G(d)) and 2 grids (fine and ultrafine) for most of the H6EB structures dependent of dihedral angles. The results show a significant difference between the OH and NH bands, while the CO amide and O(CO) IR bands are often found on top of each other. The NMR DFT calculations show a strong dependence on the xc functional, basis set, and grid used for the H6EB structure. Calculated 1H and 13C NMR spectra enable the effect of the solvent to be understood in the context of the experimental measurements. The good agreement between the experimental and the calculated spectra using LC-PBE/QZVP and ultrafine grid suggest the possibility of the systems reported here to be considered as a standard set. The dependence of electrostatic potential and frontier orbitals with the catecholamide dihedral angles of H6EB is described. The matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of the flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) of H6EB is also reported of manner to enrich the knowledge about its reactivity.

Frolov, A.; Mamontova, T.; Ihling, C.; Lukasheva, E.; Bankin, M.; Chantseva, V.; Vikhnina, M.; Soboleva, A.; Shumilina, J.; Mavropolo-Stolyarenko, G.; Grishina, T.; Osmolovskaya, N.; Zhukov, V.; Hoehenwarter, W.; Sinz, A.; Tikhononovich, I.; Wessjohann, L.; Bilova, T.; Smolikova, G.; Medvedev, S. Mining seed proteome: from protein dynamics to modification profiles Biol Commun 63, 43-58, (2018) DOI: 10.21638/spbu03.2018.106

In the modern world, crop plants represent a major source of daily consumed foods. Among them, cereals and legumes — i.e. the crops accumulating oils, carbohydrates and proteins in their seeds — dominate in European agriculture, tremendously impacting global protein consumption and biodiesel production. Therefore, the seeds of crop plants attract the special attention of biologists, biochemists, nutritional physiologists and food chemists. Seed development and germination, as well as age- and stress-related changes in their viability and nutritional properties, can be addressed by a variety of physiological and biochemical methods. In this context, the methods of functional genomics can be applied to address characteristic changes in seed metabolism, which can give access to stress-resistant genotypes. Among these methods, proteomics is one of the most effective tools, allowing mining metabolism changes on the protein level. Here we discuss the main methodological approaches of seed proteomics in the context of physiological changes related to environmental stress and ageing. We provide a comprehensive comparison of gel- and chromatographybased approaches with a special emphasis on advantages and disadvantages of both strategies in characterization of the seed proteome.

Farag, M. A.; Labib, R. M.; Noleto, C.; Porzel, A.; Wessjohann, L. A. NMR approach for the authentication of 10 cinnamon spice accessions analyzed via chemometric tools LWT 90, 491-498, (2018) DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2017.12.069

Quantitative NMR metabolomics approach was developed to distinguish two cinnamon species (Ceylon Cinnamon, Cinnamomum verum and Chinese Cinnamon, Cinnamomum cassia) that are interchangeably used in food products. The results of the analyses of 10 bark accessions revealed for 9 key sensory metabolites, with (E)-cinnamaldehyde as the major form. Multivariate data analyses revealed for eugenol leading presence in C. verum versus fatty acid enrichment in C. cassia. This research provides the first NMR metabolites fingerprinting of the two major cinnamon resources. Compounds related to C. verum aroma and taste were identified and quantified that can be utilized as markers for the authentication of this valuable drug. Novel insight on metabolites mediating for C. verum antidiabetic effect is also presented.

Mijatović, S.; Bramanti, A.; Nicoletti, F.; Fagone, P.; Kaluđerović, G. N.; Maksimović-Ivanić, D. Naturally occurring compounds in differentiation based therapy of cancer Biotechnol Adv 36, 1622-1632, (2018) DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.04.001

Differentiation of cancer cells entails the reversion of phenotype from malignant to the original. The conversion to cell type characteristic for another tissue is named transdifferentiation. Differentiation/transdifferentiation of malignant cells in high grade tumor mass could serve as a nonaggressive approach that potentially limits tumor progression and augments chemosensitivity. While this therapeutic strategy is already being used for treatment of hematological cancers, its feasibility for solid malignancies is still debated. We will presently discuss the natural compounds that show these properties, with focus on anthraquinones from Aloe vera, Senna, Rheum sp. and hop derived prenylflavonoids.

Farag, M. A.; Khattab, A. R.; Ehrlich, A.; Kropf, M.; Heiss, A. G.; Wessjohann, L. A. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolite Profiling of Nutrients and Antinutrients in Eight Lens and Lupinus Seeds (Fabaceae) J Agr Food Chem 66, 4267-4280, (2018) DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.8b00369

Lens culinaris and several Lupinus species are two legumes regarded as potential protein resources aside from their richness in phytochemicals. Consequently, characterization of their metabolite composition seems warranted to be considered as a sustainable commercial functional food. This study presents a discriminatory holistic approach for metabolite profiling in accessions of four lentil cultivars and four Lupinus species via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A total of 107 metabolites were identified, encompassing organic and amino acids, sugars, and sterols, along with antinutrients, viz., alkaloids and sugar phosphates. Among the examined specimens, four nutritionally valuable accessions ought to be prioritized for future breeding to include Lupinus hispanicus, enriched in organic (ca. 11.7%) and amino acids (ca. 5%), and Lupinus angustifolius, rich in sucrose (ca. 40%), along with two dark-colored lentil cultivars ‘verte du Puy’ and ‘Black Beluga’ enriched in peptides. Antinutrient chemicals were observed in Lupinus polyphyllus, owing to its high alkaloid content. Several species-specific markers were also revealed using multivariate data analyses.
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