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Publikationen - Molekulare Signalverarbeitung

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Publikation

Abel, S.; Theologis, A. Transient transformation of Arabidopsis leaf protoplasts: a versatile experimental system to study gene expression Plant Journal 5, 421-427, (1994)

An improved protocol is reported to isolate and transiently transform mesophyll protoplasts of Arabidopsis thaliana. Transfected leaf protoplasts support high levels of expression of the bacterial reporter gene coding for β-glucuronidase (GUS), under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. Transient expression of GUS activity was monitored spectrophotometrically and reached a maximum between 18 and 48 h after polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated DNA uptake. Histochemical staining for GUS activity revealed reproducible transformation frequencies between 40 and 60%, based on the number of protoplasts survived. To demonstrate the applicability of the transient expression system, the subcellular localization of GUS proteins tagged with different nuclear polypeptides was studied in transfected mesophyll protoplasts, revealing nuclear compartmentalization of the chimeric GUS enzymes. Furthermore, Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts support auxin-mediated induction of chloramphenicol acetyl-transferase (CAT) activity when transfected with a transcriptional fusion between the CAT reporter gene and the early auxin-inducible PS-IAA4/5 promoter. Hence, the method allows in vivo analysis of promoter activity and subcellular localization of fusion proteins in a homologous transformation system.
Publikation

Abel, S.; Oeller, P.W.; Theologis, A. Early auxin-induced genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins PNAS USA 91, 326-330, (1994)

The plant growth hormone indoleacetic acid (IAA) transcriptionally activates gene expression in plants. Some of the genes whose expression is induced by IAA encode a family of proteins in pea (PS-IAA4 and PS-IAA6) and Arabidopsis (IAA1 and IAA2) that contain putative nuclear localization signals that direct a beta-glucuronidase reporter protein into the nucleus. Pulse-chase and immunoprecipitation experiments have defined the t1/2 of the PS-IAA4 and PS-IAA6 proteins to be 8 and 6 min, respectively. Their most prominent feature is the presence of a beta alpha alpha motif similar to the beta-sheet DNA-binding domain found in prokaryotic repressors of the Arc family. Based on these data, we suggest that plant tissues express short-lived nuclear proteins as a primary response to IAA. We propose that these proteins act as activators or repressors of genes responsible for mediating the various auxin responses.
Publikation

Kogel, K.-H.; Ortel, B.; Jarosch, B.; Atzorn, R.; Schiffer, R.; Wasternack, C. Resistance in barley against the powdery mildew fungus (<EM>Erysiphe graminis</EM> f. sp. hordei) is not associated with enhanced levels of endogenous jasmonates Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 101, 319-332, (1995)

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Publikation

Kramell, R.; Atzorn, R.; Schneider, G.; Miersch, O.; Brückner, C.; Schmidt, J.; Sembdner, G.; Parthier, B. Occurrence and identification of jasmonic acid and its amino acid conjugates induced by osmotic stress in barley leaf tissue J. Plant Growth Reg. 14, 29-36, (1995)

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Publikation

Abel, S.; Theologis, A. A polymorphic bipartite motif signals nuclear targeting of early auxin- inducible proteins related to PS-IAA4 from pea (Pisum sativum) Plant Journal 8, 87-96, (1995)

The plant hormone, indoleacetic acid (IAA), transcriptionally activates two early genes in pea, PS-IAA4/5 and PS-IAA6, that encode short-lived nuclear proteins. The identification of the nuclear localization signals (NLS) in PS-IAA4 and PS-IAA6 using progressive deletion analysis and site-directed mutagenesis is reported. A C-terminal SV40-type NLS is sufficient to direct the β-glucuronidase reporter to the nucleus of transiently transformed tobacco protoplasts, but is dispensible for nuclear localization of both proteins. The dominant and essential NLS in PS-IAA4 and PS-IAA6 overlap with a bipartite basic motif which is polymorphic and conserved in related proteins from other plant species, having the consensus sequence (KKNEK)KR-X(2471)-(RSXRK)/(RK/RK). Both basic elements of this motif in PS-IAA4, (KR-X41-RSYRK), function interdependently as a bipartite NLS. However, in PS-IAA6 (KKNEKKR-X36-RKK) the upstream element of the corresponding motif contains additional basic residues which allow its autonomous function as an SV40-type monopartite NLS. The spacer-length polymorphism, X(2470), in respective bipartite NLS peptides of several PS-IAA4-like proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana does not affect nuclear targeting function. The structural and functional variation of the bipartite basic motif in PS-IAA4-like proteins supports the proposed integrated consensus of NLS.
Publikation

Lehmann, J.; Atzorn, R.; Brückner, C.; Reinbothe, S.; Leopold, J.; Wasternack, C.; Parthier, B. Accumulation of jasmonate, abscisic acid, specific transcripts and proteins in osmotically stressed barley leaf segments Planta 197, 156-162, (1995)

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Publikation

Abel, S.; Nguyen, M.D.; Theologis, A. The PS-IAA4/5-like family of early auxin-inducible mRNAs in Arabidopsis thaliana Journal of Biological Chemistry 270, 19093-19099, (1995)

1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase is the key regulatory enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of the plant hormone ethylene. The enzyme is encoded by a divergent multigene family in Arabidopsis thaliana, comprising at least five genes, ACS1-5 (Liang, X., Abel, S., Keller, J. A., Shen, N. F., and Theologis, A.(1992) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 89, 11046-11050). In etiolated seedlings, ACS4 is specifically induced by indoleacetic acid (IAA). The response to IAA is rapid (within 25 min) and insensitive to protein synthesis inhibition, suggesting that the ACS4 gene expression is a primary response to IAA. The ACS4 mRNA accumulation displays a biphasic dose-response curve which is optimal at 10 μM of IAA. However, IAA concentrations as low as 100 nM are sufficient to enhance the basal level of ACS4 mRNA. The expression of ACS4 is defective in the Arabidopsis auxin-resistant mutant lines axr1-12, axr2-1, and aux1-7. ACS4 mRNA levels are severely reduced in axr1-12 and axr2-1 but are only 1.5-fold lower in aux1-7. IAA inducibility is abolished in axr2-1. The ACS4 gene was isolated and structurally characterized. The promoter contains four sequence motifs reminiscent of functionally defined auxin-responsive cis-elements in the early auxin-inducible genes PS-IAA4/5 from pea and GH3 from soybean. Conceptual translation of the coding region predicts a protein with a molecular mass of 53,795 Da and a theoretical isoelectric point of 8.2. The ACS4 polypeptide contains the 11 invariant amino acid residues conserved between aminotransferases and ACC synthases from various plant species. An ACS4 cDNA was generated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and the authenticity was confirmed by expression of ACC synthase activity in Escherichia coli.
Publikation

Wasternack, C.; Atzorn, R.; Leopold, J.; Feussner, I.; Rademacher, W.; Parthier, B. Synthesis of jasmonate-induced proteins in barley (<EM>Hordeum vulgare</EM>) is inhibited by the growth retardant tetcyclacis Physiol. Plantarum 94, 335-341, (1995)

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Publikation

Harms, K.; Atzorn, R.; Brash, A.; Kühn, H.; Wasternack, C.; Willmitzer, L.; Peña-Cortés, H. Expression of a flax allene oxide synthase cDNA leads to an increase in the endogenous jasmonic acid level in transgenic potato plants but not to a corresponding activation of jasmonic acid-responding genes The Plant Cell 7, 1645-1654, (1995)

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Publikation

Feussner, I.; Hause, B.; Nellen, A.; Wasternack, C.; Kindl, H. Lipid-body lipoxygenase is expressed in cotyledons during germination prior to other lipoxygenase forms Planta 198, 288-293, (1996) DOI: 10.1007/BF00206255

Lipid bodies are degraded during germination. Whereas some proteins, e.g. oleosins, are synthesized during the formation of lipid bodies of maturating seeds, a new set of proteins, including a specific form of lipoxygenase (LOX; EC 1.13.11.12), is detectable in lipid bodies during the stage of fat degradation in seed germination. In cotyledons of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings at day 4 of germination, the most conspicuous staining with anti-LOX antibodies was observed in the cytosol. At very early stages of germination, however, the LOX form present in large amounts and synthesized preferentially was the lipid-body LOX. This was demonstrated by immunocytochemical staining of cotyledons from 1-h and 24-h-old seedlings: the immunodecoration of sections of 24-h-old seedlings with anti-LOX antiserum showed label exclusively correlated with lipid bodies of around 3 μm in diameter. In accordance, the profile of LOX protein isolated from lipid bodies during various stages of germination showed a maximum at day 1. By measuring biosynthesis of the protein in vivo we demonstrated that the highest rates of synthesis of lipid-body LOX occurred at day 1 of germination. The early and selective appearance of a LOX form associated with lipid bodies at this stage of development is discussed.
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