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Publikationen - Molekulare Signalverarbeitung

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Publikation

Stumpe, M.; Göbel, C.; Faltin, B.; Beike, A. K.; Hause, B.; Himmelsbach, K.; Bode, J.; Kramell, R.; Wasternack, C.; Frank, W.; Reski, R.; Feussner, I. The moss Physcomitrella patens contains cyclopentenones but no jasmonates: mutations in allene oxide cyclase lead to reduced fertility and altered sporophyte morphology New Phytol 188 (3), 740-749, (2010) DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03406.x

Two cDNAs encoding allene oxide cyclases (PpAOC1, PpAOC2), key enzymes in the formation of jasmonic acid (JA) and its precursor (9S,13S)‐12‐oxo‐phytodienoic acid (cis‐(+)‐OPDA), were isolated from the moss Physcomitrella patens.Recombinant PpAOC1 and PpAOC2 show substrate specificity against the allene oxide derived from 13‐hydroperoxy linolenic acid (13‐HPOTE); PpAOC2 also shows substrate specificity against the allene oxide derived from 12‐hydroperoxy arachidonic acid (12‐HPETE).In protonema and gametophores the occurrence of cis‐(+)‐OPDA, but neither JA nor the isoleucine conjugate of JA nor that of cis‐(+)‐OPDA was detected.Targeted knockout mutants for PpAOC1 and for PpAOC2 were generated, while double mutants could not be obtained. The ΔPpAOC1 and ΔPpAOC2 mutants showed reduced fertility, aberrant sporophyte morphology and interrupted sporogenesis.
Publikation

Wasternack, C.; Kombrink, E. Jasmonates: Structural Requirements for Lipid-Derived Signals Active in Plant Stress Responses and Development ACS Chem Biol 5, 63-77, (2010) DOI: 10.1021/cb900269u

Jasmonates are lipid-derived signals that mediate plant stress responses and development processes. Enzymes participating in biosynthesis of jasmonic acid (JA) (1, 2) and components of JA signaling have been extensively characterized by biochemical and molecular-genetic tools. Mutants of Arabidopsis and tomato have helped to define the pathway for synthesis of jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile), the active form of JA, and to identify the F-box protein COI1 as central regulatory unit. However, details of the molecular mechanism of JA signaling have only recently been unraveled by the discovery of JAZ proteins that function in transcriptional repression. The emerging picture of JA perception and signaling cascade implies the SCFCOI1 complex operating as E3 ubiquitin ligase that upon binding of JA-Ile targets JAZ repressors for degradation by the 26S-proteasome pathway, thereby allowing the transcription factor MYC2 to activate gene expression. The fact that only one particular stereoisomer, (+)-7-iso-JA-l-Ile (4), shows high biological activity suggests that epimerization between active and inactive diastereomers could be a mechanism for turning JA signaling on or off. The recent demonstration that COI1 directly binds (+)-7-iso-JA-l-Ile (4) and thus functions as JA receptor revealed that formation of the ternary complex COI1-JA-Ile-JAZ is an ordered process. The pronounced differences in biological activity of JA stereoisomers also imply strict stereospecific control of product formation along the JA biosynthetic pathway. The pathway of JA biosynthesis has been unraveled, and most of the participating enzymes are well-characterized. For key enzymes of JA biosynthesis the crystal structures have been established, allowing insight into the mechanisms of catalysis and modes of substrate binding that lead to formation of stereospecific products.
Publikation

Wasternack, C.; Xie, D. The genuine ligand of a jasmonic acid receptor: Improved analysis of jasmonates is now required. Plant Signal Behav 5, 337-340, (2010) DOI: 10.4161/psb.5.4.11574

Jasmonic acid (JA), its metabolites, such as the methyl ester or amino acid conjugates as well as its precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) are lipid-derived signals. JA, OPDA and JA-amino acid conjugates are known to function as signals in plant stress responses and development. More recently, formation of JA-amino acid conjugates and high biological activity of JA-Isoleucine (JA-Ile) were found to be essential in JA signaling. A breakthrough was the identification of JAZ proteins which interact with the F-box protein COI1 if JA-Ile is bound. This interaction leads to proteasomal degradation of JAZs being negative regulators of JA-induced transcription. Surprisingly, a distinct stereoisomer of JA-Ile, the (+)-7-iso-JA-Ile [(3R,7S) form] is most active. Coronatine, a bacterial phytotoxine with an identical stereochemistry at the cyclopentanone ring, has a similar bioactivity. This was explained by the recent identification of COI1 as the JA receptor and accords well with molecular modeling studies. Whereas over the last two decades JA was quantified to describe any JA dependent process, now we have to take into account a distinct stereoisomer of JA-Ile. Until recently a quantitative analysis of (+)-7-iso-JA-Ile was missing presumable due to its equilibration to (−)-JA-Ile. Now such an analysis was achieved. These aspects will be discussed based on our new knowledge on JA perception and signaling.
Publikation

Robson, F.; Okamoto, H.; Patrick, E.; Harris, S.-R.; Wasternack, C.; Brearley, C.; Turner, J. G. Jasmonate and Phytochrome A Signaling in Arabidopsis Wound and Shade Responses Are Integrated through JAZ1 Stability Plant Cell 22, 1143-1160, (2010) DOI: 10.1105/tpc.109.067728

Jasmonate (JA) activates plant defense, promotes pollen maturation, and suppresses plant growth. An emerging theme in JA biology is its involvement in light responses; here, we examine the interdependence of the JA- and light-signaling pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana. We demonstrate that mutants deficient in JA biosynthesis and signaling are deficient in a subset of high irradiance responses in far-red (FR) light. These mutants display exaggerated shade responses to low, but not high, R/FR ratio light, suggesting a role for JA in phytochrome A (phyA) signaling. Additionally, we demonstrate that the FR lightinduced expression of transcription factor genes is dependent on CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1), a central component of JA signaling, and is suppressed by JA. phyA mutants had reduced JA-regulated growth inhibition and VSP expression and increased content of cis-(+)-12-oxophytodienoic acid, an intermediate in JA biosynthesis. Significantly, COI1-mediated degradation of JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN1-b-glucuronidase (JAZ1-GUS) in response to mechanical wounding and JA treatment required phyA, and ectopic expression of JAZ1-GUS resulted in exaggerated shade responses.Together, these results indicate that JA and phyA signaling are integrated through degradation of the JAZ1 protein, and both are required for plant responses to light and stress.
Publikation

Renovell, Á.; Gago, S.; Ruiz-Ruiz, S.; Velázquez, K.; Navarro, L.; Moreno, P.; Vives, M. C.; Guerri, J. Mapping the subgenomic RNA promoter of the Citrus leaf blotch virus coat protein gene by Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation Virology 406, 360-369, (2010) DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2010.07.034

Citrus leaf blotch virus has a single-stranded positive-sense genomic RNA (gRNA) of 8747 nt organized in three open reading frames (ORFs). The ORF1, encoding a polyprotein involved in replication, is translated directly from the gRNA, whereas ORFs encoding the movement (MP) and coat (CP) proteins are expressed via 3' coterminal subgenomic RNAs (sgRNAs). We characterized the minimal promoter region critical for the CP-sgRNA expression in infected cells by deletion analyses using Agrobacterium-mediated infection of Nicotiana benthamiana plants. The minimal CP-sgRNA promoter was mapped between nucleotides −67 and + 50 nt around the transcription start site. Surprisingly, larger deletions in the region between the CP-sgRNA transcription start site and the CP translation initiation codon resulted in increased CP-sgRNA accumulation, suggesting that this sequence could modulate the CP-sgRNA transcription. Site-specific mutational analysis of the transcription start site revealed that the + 1 guanylate and the + 2 adenylate are important for CP-sgRNA synthesis.
Bücher und Buchkapitel

Wasternack, C. Jasmonates in Stress, Growth, and Development (H. Hirt). WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim 91 - 118, (2010) ISBN: 978-3-527-32290-9 DOI: 10.1002/9783527628964.ch5

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Publikation

Leon-Reyes, A.; Van der Does, D.; De Lange, E. S.; Delker, C.; Wasternack, C.; Van Wees, S. C. M.; Ritsema, T.; Pieterse, C. M. J. Salicylate-mediated suppression of jasmonate-responsive gene expression in Arabidopsis is targeted downstream of the jasmonate biosynthesis pathway Planta 232, 1423-1432, (2010) DOI: 10.1007/s00425-010-1265-z

Jasmonates (JAs) and salicylic acid (SA) are plant hormones that play pivotal roles in the regulation of induced defenses against microbial pathogens and insect herbivores. Their signaling pathways cross-communicate providing the plant with a regulatory potential to finely tune its defense response to the attacker(s) encountered. In Arabidopsis thaliana, SA strongly antagonizes the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway, resulting in the downregulation of a large set of JA-responsive genes, including the marker genes PDF1.2 and VSP2. Induction of JA-responsive marker gene expression by different JA derivatives was equally sensitive to SA-mediated suppression. Activation of genes encoding key enzymes in the JA biosynthesis pathway, such as LOX2, AOS, AOC2, and OPR3 was also repressed by SA, suggesting that the JA biosynthesis pathway may be a target for SA-mediated antagonism. To test this, we made use of the mutant aos/dde2, which is completely blocked in its ability to produce JAs because of a mutation in the ALLENE OXIDE SYNTHASE gene. Mutant aos/dde2 plants did not express the JA-responsive marker genes PDF1.2 or VSP2 in response to infection with the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola or the herbivorous insect Pieris rapae. Bypassing JA biosynthesis by exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) rescued this JA-responsive phenotype in aos/dde2. Application of SA suppressed MeJA-induced PDF1.2 expression to the same level in the aos/dde2 mutant as in wild-type Col-0 plants, indicating that SA-mediated suppression of JAresponsive gene expression is targeted at a position downstream of the JA biosynthesis pathway.
Publikation

Feussner, I.; Hause, B.; Nellen, A.; Wasternack, C.; Kindl, H. Lipid-body lipoxygenase is expressed in cotyledons during germination prior to other lipoxygenase forms Planta 198, 288-293, (1996) DOI: 10.1007/BF00206255

Lipid bodies are degraded during germination. Whereas some proteins, e.g. oleosins, are synthesized during the formation of lipid bodies of maturating seeds, a new set of proteins, including a specific form of lipoxygenase (LOX; EC 1.13.11.12), is detectable in lipid bodies during the stage of fat degradation in seed germination. In cotyledons of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings at day 4 of germination, the most conspicuous staining with anti-LOX antibodies was observed in the cytosol. At very early stages of germination, however, the LOX form present in large amounts and synthesized preferentially was the lipid-body LOX. This was demonstrated by immunocytochemical staining of cotyledons from 1-h and 24-h-old seedlings: the immunodecoration of sections of 24-h-old seedlings with anti-LOX antiserum showed label exclusively correlated with lipid bodies of around 3 μm in diameter. In accordance, the profile of LOX protein isolated from lipid bodies during various stages of germination showed a maximum at day 1. By measuring biosynthesis of the protein in vivo we demonstrated that the highest rates of synthesis of lipid-body LOX occurred at day 1 of germination. The early and selective appearance of a LOX form associated with lipid bodies at this stage of development is discussed.
Publikation

Herde, O.; Atzorn, R.; Fisahn, J.; Wasternack, C.; Willmitzer, L.; Peña-Cortés, H. Localized wounding by heat initiates the accumulation of proteinase inhibitor II in abscisic acid-deficient plants by triggering jasmonic acid biosynthesis Plant Physiol. 112, 853-860, (1996)

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Publikation

Peña-Cortés, H.; Prat, S.; Atzorn, R.; Wasternack, C.; Willmitzer, L. Pin2 gene expression in potato and tomato detached leaves from ABA-deficient potato and tomato plants upon systemin treatment Planta 198, 447-451, (1996)

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