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Publikationen - Molekulare Signalverarbeitung

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Ryan, P. T.; Ó’Maoiléidigh, D. S.; Drost, H.-G.; Kwaśniewska, K.; Gabel, A.; Grosse, I.; Graciet, E.; Quint, M.; Wellmer, F.; Patterns of gene expression during Arabidopsis flower development from the time of initiation to maturation BMC Genomics 16, 488, (2015) DOI: 10.1186/s12864-015-1699-6

BackgroundThe formation of flowers is one of the main model systems to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that control developmental processes in plants. Although several studies have explored gene expression during flower development in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana on a genome-wide scale, a continuous series of expression data from the earliest floral stages until maturation has been lacking. Here, we used a floral induction system to close this information gap and to generate a reference dataset for stage-specific gene expression during flower formation.ResultsUsing a floral induction system, we collected floral buds at 14 different stages from the time of initiation until maturation. Using whole-genome microarray analysis, we identified 7,405 genes that exhibit rapid expression changes during flower development. These genes comprise many known floral regulators and we found that the expression profiles for these regulators match their known expression patterns, thus validating the dataset. We analyzed groups of co-expressed genes for over-represented cellular and developmental functions through Gene Ontology analysis and found that they could be assigned specific patterns of activities, which are in agreement with the progression of flower development. Furthermore, by mapping binding sites of floral organ identity factors onto our dataset, we were able to identify gene groups that are likely predominantly under control of these transcriptional regulators. We further found that the distribution of paralogs among groups of co-expressed genes varies considerably, with genes expressed predominantly at early and intermediate stages of flower development showing the highest proportion of such genes.ConclusionsOur results highlight and describe the dynamic expression changes undergone by a large number of genes during flower development. They further provide a comprehensive reference dataset for temporal gene expression during flower formation and we demonstrate that it can be used to integrate data from other genomics approaches such as genome-wide localization studies of transcription factor binding sites.

Delker, C.; Raschke, A.; Quint, M.; Auxin dynamics: the dazzling complexity of a small molecule’s message Planta 227, 929-941, (2008) DOI: 10.1007/s00425-008-0710-8

The phytohormone auxin is a potent regulator of plant development. Since its discovery in the beginning of the twentieth century many aspects of auxin biology have been extensively studied, ranging from biosynthesis and metabolism to the elucidation of molecular components of downstream signaling. With the identification of the F-box protein TIR1 as an auxin receptor a major breakthrough in understanding auxin signaling has been achieved and recent modeling approaches have shed light on the putative mechanisms underlying the establishment of auxin gradients and maxima essential for many auxin-regulated processes. Here, we review these and other recent advances in unraveling the entanglement of biosynthesis, polar transport and cellular signaling events that allow small auxinic molecules to facilitate their complex regulatory action.

Feussner, I.; Hause, B.; Nellen, A.; Wasternack, C.; Kindl, H.; Lipid-body lipoxygenase is expressed in cotyledons during germination prior to other lipoxygenase forms Planta 198, 288-293, (1996) DOI: 10.1007/BF00206255

Lipid bodies are degraded during germination. Whereas some proteins, e.g. oleosins, are synthesized during the formation of lipid bodies of maturating seeds, a new set of proteins, including a specific form of lipoxygenase (LOX; EC, is detectable in lipid bodies during the stage of fat degradation in seed germination. In cotyledons of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings at day 4 of germination, the most conspicuous staining with anti-LOX antibodies was observed in the cytosol. At very early stages of germination, however, the LOX form present in large amounts and synthesized preferentially was the lipid-body LOX. This was demonstrated by immunocytochemical staining of cotyledons from 1-h and 24-h-old seedlings: the immunodecoration of sections of 24-h-old seedlings with anti-LOX antiserum showed label exclusively correlated with lipid bodies of around 3 μm in diameter. In accordance, the profile of LOX protein isolated from lipid bodies during various stages of germination showed a maximum at day 1. By measuring biosynthesis of the protein in vivo we demonstrated that the highest rates of synthesis of lipid-body LOX occurred at day 1 of germination. The early and selective appearance of a LOX form associated with lipid bodies at this stage of development is discussed.

Peña-Cortés, H.; Prat, S.; Atzorn, R.; Wasternack, C.; Willmitzer, L.; Abscisic acid-deficient plants do not accumulate proteinase inhibitor II following systemin treatment Planta 198, 447-451, (1996) DOI: 10.1007/BF00620062

The role of systemin in Pin2 gene expression was analyzed in wild-type plants of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), as well as in abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient tomato (sitiens) and potato (droopy) plants. The results showed that systemin initiates Pin2 mRNA accumulation only in wildtype tomato and potato plants. As in the situation after mechanical wounding,Pin2 gene expression in ABA-deficient plants was not activated by systemin. Increased endogenous levels of jasmonic acid (JA) and accumulation of Pin2 mRNA were observed following treatment with α-linolenic acid, the precursor of JA biosynthesis, suggesting that these ABA mutants still have the capability to synthesize de novo JA. Measurement of endogenous levels of ABA and JA showed that systemin leads to an increase of both phytohormones (ABA and JA) only in wild-type but not in ABA-deficient plants.

Lehmann, J.; Atzorn, R.; Brückner, C.; Reinbothe, S.; Leopold, J.; Wasternack, C.; Parthier, B.; Accumulation of jasmonate, abscisic acid, specific transcripts and proteins in osmotically stressed barley leaf segments Planta 197, 156-192, (1995) DOI: 10.1007/BF00239952

The accumulation of abundant proteins and their respective transcripts, induced by 10−4 M cisabscisic acid or 10−5 M jasmonic acid methyl ester, was studied in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) leaf segments and compared to that resulting from osmotic stress caused by floating the segments on solutions of sorbitol, glucose, polyethyleneglycol (PEG)-6000 or NaCl. Osmotic stress or treatment with abscisic acid led to the synthesis of novel proteins which were identical to jasmonateinduced proteins (JIPs) with respect to immunological properties and molecular masses. The most prominent polypeptides were characterized by molecular masses of 66, 37 and 23 kDa and were newly synthesized. Whereas sorbitol, mannitol, sucrose, glucose and PEG provoked the synthesis of JIPs, 2deoxyglucose and NaCl did not. We provide evidence that the synthesis of JIPs induced by osmotic stress is directly correlated with a preceding rise in endogenous jasmonates. These jasmonates, quantified by an enzyme immunoassay specific for (−)jasmonic acid and its aminoacid conjugates, increased remarkably in leaf segments treated with sorbitol, glucose or other sugars. In contrast, no increase in jasmonates could be observed in tissues exposed to salts (NaCl). The results strengthen the hypothesis that the accumulation of jasmonates, probably by de-novo synthesis, is an intermediate and essential step in a signalling pathway between (osmotic) stress and activation of genes coding for polypeptides of high abundance.
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