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This chapter presents jasmonates and their related compounds and discusses jasmonate-induced alteration of gene expression. Jasmonates exerts two different changes in gene expression— decrease in the expression of nuclear- and chloroplast-encoded genes and increase in the expression of specific genes. Jasmonates are shown to alter sink-source relationships such as JA promotes formation of the N-rich vegetative storage proteins—VSPα and VSPβ—of soybean, including reallocation in pod filling. In addition to such nutrient reallocation to other parts of the plant, jasmonates cause decreases in photosynthesis and chlorophyll content, the most significant manifestations of senescence in leaves. The rise of endogenous jasmonates upon stress or exogenous treatment with jasmonates correlates in time with the expression of various genes. The promotion of senescence by jasmonates is counteracted by cytokinins. The capacity of jasmonates to down regulate photosynthetic genes may also be one determinant in the onset of senescence.
Wasternack, C.; Introductory Remarks on Biosynthesis and Diversity in Actions J. Plant Growth Regul. 23, 167-169, (2004) DOI: 10.1007/s00344-004-0051-1
Schüler, G.; Mithöfer, A.; Baldwin, I. T.; BERGER, S.; Ebel, J.; Santos, J. G.; Herrmann, G.; Hölscher, D.; Kramell, R.; Kutchan, T. M.; Maucher, H.; Schneider, B.; Stenzel, I.; Wasternack, C.; Boland, W.; Coronalon: a powerful tool in plant stress physiology FEBS Lett. 563, 17-22, (2004) DOI: 10.1016/S0014-5793(04)00239-X
Coronalon, a synthetic 6‐ethyl indanoyl isoleucine conjugate, has been designed as a highly active mimic of octadecanoid phytohormones that are involved in insect and disease resistance. The spectrum of biological activities that is affected by coronalon was investigated in nine different plant systems specifically responding to jasmonates and/or 12‐oxo‐phytodienoic acid. In all bioassays analyzed, coronalon demonstrated a general strong activity at low micromolar concentrations. The results obtained showed the induction of (i) defense‐related secondary metabolite accumulation in both cell cultures and plant tissues, (ii) specific abiotic and biotic stress‐related gene expression, and (iii) root growth retardation. The general activity of coronalon in the induction of plant stress responses together with its simple and efficient synthesis suggests that this compound might serve as a valuable tool in the examination of various aspects in plant stress physiology. Moreover, coronalon might become employed in agriculture to elicit plant resistance against various aggressors.
Miersch, O.; Weichert, H.; Stenzel, I.; Hause, B.; Maucher, H.; Feussner, I.; Wasternack, C.; Constitutive overexpression of allene oxide cyclase in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Lukullus) elevates levels of some jasmonates and octadecanoids in flower organs but not in leaves Phytochemistry 65, 847-856, (2004) DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2004.01.016
The allene oxide cyclase (AOC), an enzyme in jasmonate biosynthesis, occurs in vascular bundles and ovules of tomato flowers which exhibit a tissue-specific oxylipin signature (Plant J. 24, 113-126, 2000). Constitutive overexpression of the AOC did not led to altered levels of jasmonates in leaves, but these levels increased upon wounding or other stresses suggesting regulation of jasmonate biosynthesis by substrate availability (Plant J. 33, 577-589, 2003). Here, we show dramatic changes in levels of jasmonic acid (JA), of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), their methyl esters (JAME, OPDAME), and of dinor-OPDA in most flower organs upon constitutive overexpression of AOC. Beside a dominant occurrence of OPDAME and JA in most flower organs, the ratio among the various compounds was altered differentially in the organs of transgenic flowers, e.g. OPDAME increased up to 53-fold in stamen, and JA increased about 51-fold in buds and 7.5-fold in sepals. The increase in jasmonates and octadecanoids was accompanied by decreased levels of free lipid hydro(per)oxy compounds. Except for 16:2, the AOC overexpression led to a significant increase in free but not esterified polyunsaturated fatty acids in all flower organs. The data suggest different regulation of JA biosynthesis in leaves and flowers of tomato.Constitutive overexpression of the AOC increases in all flower organs levels of some jasmonates and octadecanoids, alters the ratios among the compounds, decreases levels of free lipid hydro(per)oxy compounds and increases levels of free but not of esterified polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Maucher, H.; Stenzel, I.; Miersch, O.; Stein, N.; Prasad, M.; Zierold, U.; Schweizer, P.; Dorer, C.; Hause, B.; Wasternack, C.; The allene oxide cyclase of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)—cloning and organ-specific expression Phytochemistry 65, 801-811, (2004) DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2004.01.009
The naturally occurring enantiomer of the various octadecanoids and jasmonates is established in a biosynthetic step catalyzed by the allene oxide cyclase (AOC). The AOC converts an allene oxide formed by an allene oxide synthase (AOS). Here, we show cloning and characterization of cDNAs encoding the AOC and a third AOS, respectively, in addition to the two AOSs previously published (Plant J. 21, 199–213, 2000). The ORF of the AOC-cDNA of 717 bp codes for a protein of 238 amino acid residues carrying a putative chloroplast target sequence. Overexpression without chloroplast target sequence revealed AOC activity. The AOC was found to be a single copy gene which mapped on chromosome 6H. AOC mRNA accumulation appeared in leaf segments upon treatment with various jasmonates, octadecanoids and ABA or during stress such as treatment with sorbitol or glucose solutions. Infection with powdery mildew activated AOC expression in susceptible and resistant lines of barley which correlated with PR1b expression. Among different tissues of barley seedlings, the scutellar node and leaf base accumulated AOC mRNA preferentially which correlated with accumulation of mRNAs for other biosynthetic enzymes (lipoxygenases, AOSs). AOC mRNA accumulation appeared also abundantly in parts of the root containing the tip and correlated with elevated levels of jasmonates. The data suggest a link of AOC expression and JA formation and support role of JA in stress responses and development of barley.Barley plants contain one allene oxide cyclase and three allene oxide synthases which are up-regulated during seedling development accompanied by elevated levels of jasmonate.
Groß, N.; Wasternack, C.; Köck, M.; Wound-induced RNaseLE expression is jasmonate and systemin independent and occurs only locally in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Lukullus) Phytochemistry 65, 1343-1350, (2004) DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2004.04.036
Tomato RNaseLE is induced by phosphate deficiency and wounding and may play a role in macromolecular recycling as well as wound healing. Here, we analyzed the role of jasmonate and systemin in the wound-induced RNaseLE activation. The rapid expression of RNaseLE upon wounding of leaves leading to maximal RNase activity within 10 h, appeared only locally. Jasmonic acid (JA) or its molecular mimic ethyl indanoyl isoleucine conjugate did not induce RNaseLE expression. Correspondingly, RNaseLE was expressed upon wounding of 35S::allene oxide cyclase antisense plants known to be JA deficient. RNaseLE was not expressed upon systemin treatment, but was locally expressed in the spr1 mutant which is affected in systemin perception. In tomato plants carrying a PromLE::uidA construct, GUS activity could be detected upon wounding, but not following treatment with JA or systemin. The data indicate a locally acting wound-inducible systemin- and JA-independent signaling pathway for RNaseLE expression.RNaseLE expression was analyzed by pharmacological studies of different tomato lines and upon wounding of leaves. The gene is only locally activated via a new type of wound-induced signaling pathway in a jasmonate/systemin-independent manner.
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Weichert, H.; Maucher, H.; Hornung, E.; Wasternack, C.; Feussner, I.; Shift in Fatty Acid and Oxylipin Pattern of Tomato Leaves Following Overexpression of the Allene Oxide Cyclase 275-278, (2003) DOI: 10.1007/978-94-017-0159-4_64
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are a source of numerous oxidation products, the oxylipins. In leaves, α-linolenic acid (α-LeA) is the preferential substrate for lipid peroxidation reactions. This reaction may be catalyzed either by a 9-lipoxygenase (9-LOX) or by a 13-LOX and oxygen is inserted regioselectively as well as stereospecifically leading to formation of 13S- or 9S-hydroperoxy octadecatrienoic acid (13-/9-HPOT; Brash, 1999). At least, seven different enzyme families or reaction branches within the LOX pathway can use these HPOTs or other hydroperoxy PUFAs leading to (i) keto-PUFAs (LOX); (ii) epoxy hydroxy-PUFAs (epoxy alcohol synthase, EAS); (iii) octadecanoids and jasmonates (allene oxide synthase, AOS); (iv) leaf aldehydes and leaf alcohols (hydroperoxide lyase, HPL); (v) hydroxy PUFAs (reductase); (vi) divinyl ether PUFAs (divinyl ether synthase, DES); and (vii) epoxy- or dihydrodiol-PUFAs (peroxygenase, PDX; Fig. 1; Feussner and Wasternack, 2002).
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Stumpe, M.; Stenzel, I.; Weichert, H.; Hause, B.; Feussner, I.; The Lipoxygenase Pathway in Mycorrhizal Roots of Medicago Truncatula 287-290, (2003) DOI: 10.1007/978-94-017-0159-4_67
Mycorrhizas are by far the most frequent occurring beneficial symbiotic interactions between plants and fungi. Species in >80% of extant plant families are capable of establishing an arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM). In relation to the development of the symbiosis the first molecular modifications are those associated with plant defense responses, which seem to be locally suppressed to levels compatible with symbiotic interaction (Gianinazzi-Pearson, 1996). AM symbiosis can, however, reduce root disease caused by several soil-borne pathogens. The mechanisms underlying this protective effect are still not well understood. In plants, products of the enzyme lipoxygenase (LOX) and the corresponding downstream enzymes, collectively named LOX pathway (Fig. 1B), are involved in wound healing, pest resistance, and signaling, or they have antimicrobial and antifungal activity (Feussner and Wasternack, 2002). The central reaction in this pathway is catalyzed by LOXs leading to formation of either 9- or 13-hydroperoxy octadeca(di/trien)oic acids (9/13-HPO(D/T); Brash, 1999). Thus LOXs may be divided into 9- and 13-LOXs (Fig. 1A). Seven different reaction branches within this pathway can use these hydroperoxy polyenoic fatty acids (PUFAs) leading to (i) keto PUFAs by a LOX; (ii) epoxy hydroxy-fatty acids by an epoxy alcohol synthase (EAS); (iii) octadecanoids and jasmonates via allene oxide synthase (AOS); (iv) leaf aldehydes and leaf alcohols via fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase (HPL); (v) hydroxy PUFAs (reductase); (vi) divinyl ether PUFAs via divinyl ether synthase (DES); and (vii) epoxy- or dihydrodiolPUFAs via peroxygenase (PDX; Feussner and Wasternack, 2002). AOS, HPL and DES belong to one subfamily of P450-containing enzymes, the CYP74 family (Feussner and Wasternack, 2002). Here, the involvement of this CYP74 enzyme family in mycorrhizal roots of M. truncatula during early stages of AM symbiosis formation was analyzed.
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Stenzel, I.; Hause, B.; Feussner, I.; Wasternack, C.; Transcriptional Activation of Jasmonate Biosynthesis Enzymes is not Reflected at Protein Level 267-270, (2003) DOI: 10.1007/978-94-017-0159-4_62
Jasmonic acid (JA) and its precursor 12-oxo phytodienoic acid (OPDA) are lipid-derived signals in plant stress responses and development (Wasternack and Hause, 2002). Within the wound-response pathway of tomato, a local response of expression of defense genes such as the proteinase inhibitor 2 gene (PIN2) is preceded by a rise in JA (Herde et al., 1996; Howe et al., 1996) and ethylene (O’Donnell et al., 1996). Mutants affected in JA biosynthesis such as defl (Howe et al., 1996) or spr-2 (Li et al., 2002) clearly indicated that JA biosynthesis is an ultimate part of wound signaling. It is less understood, however, how the rise in JA is regulated.
Stenzel, I.; Hause, B.; Miersch, O.; Kurz, T.; Maucher, H.; Weichert, H.; Ziegler, J.; Feussner, I.; Wasternack, C.; Jasmonate biosynthesis and the allene oxide cyclase family of Arabidopsis thaliana Plant Mol. Biol. 51, 895-911, (2003) DOI: 10.1023/A:1023049319723
In biosynthesis of octadecanoids and jasmonate (JA), the naturally occurring enantiomer is established in a step catalysed by the gene cloned recently from tomato as a single-copy gene (Ziegler et al., 2000). Based on sequence homology, four full-length cDNAs were isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia coding for proteins with AOC activity. The expression of AOCgenes was transiently and differentially up-regulated upon wounding both locally and systemically and was induced by JA treatment. In contrast, AOC protein appeared at constitutively high basal levels and was slightly increased by the treatments. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed abundant occurrence of AOC protein as well as of the preceding enzymes in octadecanoid biosynthesis, lipoxygenase (LOX) and allene oxide synthase (AOS), in fully developed tissues, but much less so in 7-day old leaf tissues. Metabolic profiling data of free and esterified polyunsaturated fatty acids and lipid peroxidation products including JA and octadecanoids in wild-type leaves and the jasmonate-deficient mutant OPDA reductase 3 (opr3) revealed preferential activity of the AOS branch within the LOX pathway. 13-LOX products occurred predominantly as esterified derivatives, and all 13-hydroperoxy derivatives were below the detection limits. There was a constitutive high level of free 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) in untreated wild-type and opr3 leaves, but an undetectable expression of AOC. Upon wounding opr3 leaves exhibited only low expression of AOC, wounded wild-type leaves, however, accumulated JA and AOC mRNA. These and further data suggest regulation of JA biosynthesis by OPDA compartmentalization and a positive feedback by JA during leaf development.