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Publikationen - Molekulare Signalverarbeitung

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Bassal, M.; Majovsky, P.; Thieme, D.; Herr, T.; Abukhalaf, M.; Ayash, M.; Al Shweiki, M. R.; Proksch, C.; Hmedat, A.; Ziegler, J.; Neumann, S.; Hoehenwarter, W. Reshaping of the Arabidopsis thaliana proteome landscape and co-regulation of proteins in development and immunity bioRxiv (2020) DOI: 10.1101/2020.03.09.978627

Proteome remodeling is a fundamental adaptive response and proteins in complex and functionally related proteins are often co-expressed. Using a deep sampling strategy we define Arabidopsis thaliana tissue core proteomes at around 10,000 proteins per tissue and absolutely quantify (copy numbers per cell) nearly 16,000 proteins throughout the plant lifecycle. A proteome wide survey of global post translational modification revealed amino acid exchanges pointing to potential conservation of translational infidelity in eukaryotes. Correlation analysis of protein abundance uncovered potentially new tissue and age specific roles of entire signaling modules regulating transcription in photosynthesis, seed development and senescence and abscission. Among others, the data suggest a potential function of RD26 and other NAC transcription factors in seed development related to desiccation tolerance as well as a possible function of Cysteine-rich Receptor-like Kinases (CRKs) as ROS sensors in senescence. All of the components of ribosome biogenesis factor (RBF) complexes were co-expressed tissue and age specifically indicating functional promiscuity in the assembly of these little described protein complexes in Arabidopsis. Treatment of seedlings with flg22 for 16 hours allowed us to characterize proteome architecture in basal immunity in detail. The results were complemented with parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) targeted proteomics, phytohormone, amino acid and transcript measurements. We obtained strong evidence of suppression of jasmonate (JA) and JA-Ile levels by deconjugation and hydroxylation via IAA-ALA RESISTANT3 (IAR3) and JASMONATE-INDUCED OXYGENASE 2 (JOX2) under the control of JASMONATE INSENSITIVE 1 (MYC2). This previously unknown regulatory switch is another part of the puzzle of the as yet understudied role of JA in pattern triggered immunity. The extensive coverage of the Arabidopsis proteome in various biological scenarios presents a rich resource to plant biologists that we make available to the community.

Wasternack, C. Sulfation switch in the shade Nat Plants 6, 186-187, (2020) DOI: 10.1038/s41477-020-0620-8

Plants adjust the balance between growth and defence using photoreceptors and jasmonates. Levels of active jasmonates are reduced in a phytochrome B-dependent manner by upregulation of a 12-hydroxyjasmonate sulfotransferase, leading to increase in shade avoidance and decrease in defence.

Wasternack, C. Action of jasmonates in plant stress responses and development — Applied aspects Biotechnol Adv 32 , 31-39, (2014) DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2013.09.009

Jasmonates (JAs) are lipid-derived compounds acting as key signaling compounds in plant stress responses and development. The JA co-receptor complex and several enzymes of JA biosynthesis have been crystallized, and various JA signal transduction pathways including cross-talk to most of the plant hormones have been intensively studied. Defense to herbivores and necrotrophic pathogens are mediated by JA. Other environmental cues mediated by JA are light, seasonal and circadian rhythms, cold stress, desiccation stress, salt stress and UV stress. During development growth inhibition of roots, shoots and leaves occur by JA, whereas seed germination and flower development are partially affected by its precursor 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA). Based on these numerous JA mediated signal transduction pathways active in plant stress responses and development, there is an increasing interest in horticultural and biotechnological applications. Intercropping, the mixed growth of two or more crops, mycorrhization of plants, establishment of induced resistance, priming of plants for enhanced insect resistance as well as pre- and post-harvest application of JA are few examples. Additional sources for horticultural improvement, where JAs might be involved, are defense against nematodes, biocontrol by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, altered composition of rhizosphere bacterial community, sustained balance between growth and defense, and improved plant immunity in intercropping systems. Finally, biotechnological application for JA-induced production of pharmaceuticals and application of JAs as anti-cancer agents were intensively studied.

Bosch, M.; Wright, L. P.; Gershenzon, J.; Wasternack, C.; Hause, B.; Schaller, A.; Stintzi, A. Jasmonic acid and its precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid control different aspects of constitutive and induced herbivore defenses in tomato Plant Physiology 166, 396-410, (2014) DOI: 10.1104/pp.114.237388

The jasmonate family of growth regulators includes the isoleucine conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA-Ile) and its biosynthetic precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) as signaling molecules. In order to assess the relative contribution of JA/JA-Ile and OPDA to insect resistance in tomato, we silenced the expression of OPDA reductase (OPR3) by RNA interference. Consistent with a block in the biosynthetic pathway downstream of OPDA, OPR3-RNAi plants contained wild-type levels of OPDA but failed to accumulate JA or JA-Ile after wounding. JA/JA-Ile deficiency in OPR3-RNAi plants resulted in reduced trichome formation and impaired monoterpene and sesquiterpene production. The loss of these JA/JA-Ile-dependent defense traits rendered them more attractive to the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta with respect to feeding and oviposition. Oviposition preference resulted from reduced levels of repellant mono- and sesquiterpenes. Feeding preference, on the other hand, was caused by increased production of cis-3-hexenal acting as a feeding stimulant for M. sexta larvae in OPR3-RNAi plants. Despite impaired constitutive defenses and increased palatability of OPR3-RNAi leaves, larval development was indistinguishable on OPR3-RNAi and wild-type plants, and much delayed as compared to development on the JA/JA-Ile insensitive (jai1) mutant. Apparently, signaling through JAI1, the tomato ortholog of COI1 in Arabidopsis, is required for defense while the conversion of OPDA to JA/JA-Ile is not. Comparing the signaling activities of OPDA and JA/JA-Ile, we found that OPDA can substitute for JA/JA-Ile in the local induction of defense gene expression, but the production of JA/JA-Ile is required for a systemic response.

Wasternack, C.; Hause, B. Jasmonsäure – ein universelles Pflanzenhormon: Blütenduft, Abwehr, Entwicklung Biologie in unserer Zeit 44, 164 - 171, (2014) DOI: 10.1002/biuz.201410535

Jasmonsäure (JA) und ihre Metaboliten kommen in allen niederen und höheren Pflanzen vor. Sie sind universell wirksame, aus Lipiden gebildete Signalstoffe bei der Abwehr von biotischem und abiotischem Stress sowie in der pflanzlichen Entwicklung. Rezeptor und Komponenten von JA–Signalketten wurden identifiziert. In der Entwicklung von Blüten, Früchten, Samen, Trichomen oder in der Abwehr von Insekten und Pathogenen treten ähnliche JA-vermittelte Signalproteine auf, die eine Feinregulation der Prozesse erlauben und eine Verbindung (cross-talk) zu anderenPflanzenhormonen aufweisen.
Bücher und Buchkapitel

Wasternack, C. Jasmonates in plant growth and stress responses. (Tran, L.-S.; Pal, S.). Springer, 221-264, (2014) ISBN: 978-1-4939-0490-7 (hardcover) 978-1-4939-4814-7 (softcover) DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-0491-4_8

Abiotic and biotic stresses adversely affect plant growth and productivity. The phytohormones regulate key physiological events under normal and stressful conditions for plant development. Accumulative research efforts have discovered important roles of phytohormones and their interactions in regulation of plant adaptation to numerous stressors. Intensive molecular studies have elucidated various plant hormonal pathways; each of which consist of many signaling components that link a specific hormone perception to the regulation of downstream genes. Signal transduction pathways of auxin, abscisic acid, cytokinins, gibberellins and ethylene have been thoroughly investigated. More recently, emerging signaling pathways of brassinosteroids, jasmonates, salicylic acid and strigolactones offer an exciting gateway for understanding their multiple roles in plant physiological processes.At the molecular level, phytohormonal crosstalks can be antagonistic or synergistic or additive in actions. Additionally, the signal transduction component(s) of one hormonal pathway may interplay with the signaling component(s) of other hormonal pathway(s). Together these and other research findings have revolutionized the concept of phytohormonal studies in plants. Importantly, genetic engineering now enables plant biologists to manipulate the signaling pathways of plant hormones for development of crop varieties with improved yield and stress tolerance.This book, written by internationally recognized scholars from various countries, represents the state-of-the-art understanding of plant hormones’ biology, signal transduction and implications. Aimed at a wide range of readers, including researchers, students, teachers and many others who have interests in this flourishing research field, every section is concluded with biotechnological strategies to modulate hormone contents or signal transduction pathways and crosstalk that enable us to develop crops in a sustainable manner. Given the important physiological implications of plant hormones in stressful environments, our book is finalized with chapters on phytohormonal crosstalks under abiotic and biotic stresses. 

Budiharjo, A.; Chowdhury, S.M.; Dietel, C.; Beator, B.; Dolgova, O.; Fan, B.; Bleiss, W.; Ziegler, J.; Schmid, M.; Hartmann, A.; Borris, R. Transposon Mutagenesis of the Plant-Associated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum FZB42 Revealed That the nrfA and RBAM17410 Genes Are Involved in Plant-Microbe-Interactions PLOS ONE 9, e98267, (2014) DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098267

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum FZB42 represents the prototype of Gram-positive plant growth promoting and biocontrol bacteria. In this study, we applied transposon mutagenesis to generate a transposon library, which was screened for genes involved in multicellular behavior and biofilm formation on roots as a prerequisite of plant growth promoting activity. Transposon insertion sites were determined by rescue-cloning followed by DNA sequencing. As in B. subtilis, the global transcriptional regulator DegU was identified as an activator of genes necessary for swarming and biofilm formation, and the DegU-mutant of FZB42 was found impaired in efficient root colonization. Direct screening of 3,000 transposon insertion mutants for plant-growth-promotion revealed the gene products of nfrA and RBAM_017140 to be essential for beneficial effects exerted by FZB42 on plants. We analyzed the performance of GFP-labeled wild-type and transposon mutants in the colonization of lettuce roots using confocal laser scanning microscopy. While the wild-type strain heavily colonized root surfaces, the nfrA mutant did not colonize lettuce roots, although it was not impaired in growth in laboratory cultures, biofilm formation and swarming motility on agar plates. The RBAM17410 gene, occurring in only a few members of the B. subtilis species complex, was directly involved in plant growth promotion. None of the mutant strains were affected in producing the plant growth hormone auxin. We hypothesize that the nfrA gene product is essential for overcoming the stress caused by plant response towards bacterial root colonization.

Wasternack, C. Perception, signaling and cross-talk of jasmonates and the seminal contributions of the Daoxin Xie´s lab and the Chuanyou Li´s lab Plant Cell Rep 33, 707-718, (2014) DOI: 10.1007/s00299-014-1608-5

Jasmonates (JAs) are lipid-derived signals in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses and in development. The most active JA compound is (+)-7-iso-JA-Ile, a JA conjugate with isoleucine. Biosynthesis, metabolism and key components of perception and signal transduction have been identified and numerous JA-induced gene expression data collected. For JA-Ile perception, the SCFCOI1–JAZ co-receptor complex has been identified and crystalized. Activators such as MYC2 and repressors such as JAZs including their targets were found. Involvement of JA-Ile in response to herbivores and pathogens and in root growth inhibition is among the most studied aspects of JA-Ile signaling. There are an increasing number of examples, where JA-Ile shows cross-talk with other plant hormones. Seminal contributions in JA/JA-Ile research were given by Daoxin Xie’s lab and Chuanyou Li’s lab, both in Beijing. Here, characterization was done regarding components of the JA-Ile receptor, such as COI1 (JAI1) and SCF, regarding activators (MYCs, MYBs) and repressors (JAV1, bHLH IIId’s) of JA-regulated gene expression, as well as regarding components of auxin biosynthesis and action, such as the transcription factor PLETHORA active in the root stem cell niche. This overview reflects the work of both labs in the light of our present knowledge on biosynthesis, perception and signal transduction of JA/JA-Ile and its cross-talk to other hormones.

Song, S.; Qi, T.; Wasternack, C.; Xie, D. Jasmonate signaling and crosstalk with gibberellin and ethylene Curr Opin Plant Biol. 21 , 112-119, (2014) DOI: 10.1016/j.pbi.2014.07.005

The phytohormone jasmonate (JA) plays essential roles in plant growth, development and defense. In response to the JA signal, the CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1)-based SCF complexes recruit JASMONATE ZIM-domain (JAZ) repressors for ubiquitination and degradation, and subsequently regulate their downstream signaling components essential for various JA responses. Tremendous progress has been made in understanding the JA signaling pathway and its crosstalk with other phytohormone pathways during the past two decades. Recent studies have revealed that a variety of positive and negative regulators act as targets of JAZs to control distinctive JA responses, and that JAZs and these regulators function as crucial interfaces to mediate synergy and antagonism between JA and other phytohormones. Owing to different regulatory players in JA perception and JA signaling, a fine-tuning of JA-dependent processes in plant growth, development and defense is achieved. In this review, we will summarize the latest progresses in JA signaling and its crosstalk with gibberellin and ethylene.
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