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Publikationen - Molekulare Signalverarbeitung

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Publikation

Hause, B.; Feussner, K.; Wasternack, C.; Nuclear Location of a Diadenosine 5′,5′”-P1,P4Tetraphosphate (Ap4A) Hydrolase in Tomato Cells Grown in Suspension Cultures Bot. Acta 110, 452-457, (1997) DOI: 10.1111/j.1438-8677.1997.tb00662.x

Diadenosine 5′,5′”‐P1,P4‐tetraphosphate (Ap4A) cleaving enzymes are assumed to regulate intracellular levels of Ap4A, a compound known to affect cell proliferation and stress responses. From plants an Ap4A hydrolase was recently purified using tomato cells grown in suspension. It was partially sequenced and a peptide antibody was prepared (Feussner et al., 1996). Using this polyclonal monospecific antibody, an abundant nuclear location of Ap4A hydrolase in 4‐day‐old cells of atomato cell suspension culture is demonstrated here by means of immunocytochemical techniques using FITC (fluorescein‐5‐isothiocyanate) labeled secondary antibodies. The microscopic analysis of the occurrence of Ap4A hydrolase performed for different stages of the cell cycle visualized by parallel DAPI (4,6‐diamidino‐2‐phenylindole) staining revealed that the protein accumulates within nuclei of cells in the interphase, but is absent in the nucleus as well as cytoplasm during all stages of mitosis. This first intracellular localization of an Ap4A degrading enzyme within the nucleus and its pattern of appearance during the cell cycle is discussed in relation to the suggested role of Ap4A in triggering DNA synthesis and cell proliferation.
Publikation

Feussner, I.; Fritz, I. G.; Hause, B.; Ullrich, W. R.; Wasternack, C.; Induction of a new Lipoxygenase Form in Cucumber Leaves by Salicylic Acid or 2,6-Dichloroisonicotinic Acid Bot. Acta 110, 101-108, (1997) DOI: 10.1111/j.1438-8677.1997.tb00616.x

Changes in lipoxygenase (LOX) protein pattern and/or activity were investigated in relation to acquired resistance of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) leaves against two powdery mildews, Sphaerotheca fuliginea (Schlecht) Salmon and Erysiphe cichoracearum DC et Merat. Acquired resistance was established by spraying leaves with salicylic acid (SA) or 2,6‐dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA) and estimated in whole plants by infested leaf area compared to control plants. SA was more effective than INA. According to Western blots, untreated cucumber leaves contained a 97 kDa LOX form, which remained unchanged for up to 48 h after pathogen inoculation. Upon treatment with SA alone for 24 h or with INA plus pathogen, an additional 95 kDa LOX form appeared which had an isoelectric point in the alkaline range. For the induction of this form, a threshold concentration of 1 mM SA was required, higher SA concentrations did not change LOX‐95 expression which remained similar between 24 h and 96 h but further increased upon mildew inoculation. Phloem exudates contained only the LOX‐97 form, in intercellular washing fluid no LOX was detected. dichloroisonicotinic localization revealed LOX protein in the cytosol of the mesophyll cells without differences between the forms.
Publikation

Weichert, H.; Kolbe, A.; Wasternack, C.; Feussner, I.; Formation of 4-hydroxy-2-alkenals in barley leaves Biochem. Soc. Trans. 28, 850-851, (2000) DOI: 10.1042/bst0280850

In barley leaves 13-lipoxygenases are induced by jasmonates. This leads to induction of lipid peroxidation. Here we show by in vitro studies that these processes may further lead to autoxidative formation of (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal from (3Z)-hexenal.
Publikation

Miersch, O.; Neumerkel, J.; Dippe, M.; Stenzel, I.; Wasternack, C.; Hydroxylated jasmonates are commonly occurring metabolites of jasmonic acid and contribute to a partial switch-off in jasmonate signaling New Phytol. 177, 114-127, (2008) DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2007.02252.x

In potato 12‐hydroxyjasmonic acid (12‐OH‐JA) is a tuber‐inducing compound. Here, it is demonstrated that 12‐OH‐JA, as well as its sulfated and glucosylated derivatives, are constituents of various organs of many plant species. All accumulate differentially and usually to much higher concentrations than jasmonic acid (JA).In wounded tomato leaves, 12‐OH‐JA and its sulfated, as well as glucosylated, derivative accumulate after JA, and their diminished accumulation in wounded leaves of the JA‐deficient mutants spr2 and acx1 and also a JA‐deficient 35S::AOCantisense line suggest their JA‐dependent formation.To elucidate how signaling properties of JA/JAME (jasmonic acid methyl ester) are affected by hydroxylation and sulfation, germination and root growth were recorded in the presence of the different jasmonates, indicating that 12‐OH‐JA and 12‐hydroxyjasmonic acid sulfate (12‐HSO4‐JA) were not bioactive. Expression analyses for 29 genes showed that expression of wound‐inducible genes such as those coding for PROTEINASE INHIBITOR2, POLYPHENOL OXIDASE, THREONINE DEAMINASE or ARGINASE was induced by JAME and less induced or even down‐regulated by 12‐OH‐JA and 12‐HSO4‐JA. Almost all genes coding for enzymes in JA biosynthesis were up‐regulated by JAME but down‐regulated by 12‐OH‐JA and 12‐HSO4‐JA.The data suggest that wound‐induced metabolic conversion of JA/JAME into 12‐OH‐JA alters expression pattern of genes including a switch off in JA signaling for a subset of genes.
Publikation

Clarke, S. M.; Cristescu, S. M.; Miersch, O.; Harren, F. J. M.; Wasternack, C.; Mur, L. A. J.; Jasmonates act with salicylic acid to confer basal thermotolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana New Phytol. 182, 175-187, (2009) DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02735.x

The cpr5‐1 Arabidopsis thaliana mutant exhibits constitutive activation of salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) signalling pathways and displays enhanced tolerance of heat stress (HS).cpr5‐1 crossed with jar1‐1 (a JA‐amino acid synthetase) was compromised in basal thermotolerance, as were the mutants opr3 (mutated in OPDA reductase3) and coi1‐1 (affected in an E3 ubiquitin ligase F‐box; a key JA‐signalling component). In addition, heating wild‐type Arabidopsis led to the accumulation of a range of jasmonates: JA, 12‐oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) and a JA‐isoleucine (JA‐Ile) conjugate. Exogenous application of methyl jasmonate protected wild‐type Arabidopsis from HS.Ethylene was rapidly produced during HS, with levels being modulated by both JA and SA. By contrast, the ethylene mutant ein2‐1 conferred greater thermotolerance.These data suggest that JA acts with SA, conferring basal thermotolerance while ET may act to promote cell death.
Publikation

Wasternack, C.; Xie, D.; The genuine ligand of a jasmonic acid receptor: Improved analysis of jasmonates is now required Plant Signal Behav. 5, 337-340, (2010) DOI: 10.4161/psb.5.4.11574

Jasmonic acid (JA), its metabolites, such as the methyl ester or amino acid conjugates as well as its precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) are lipid-derived signals. JA, OPDA and JA-amino acid conjugates are known to function as signals in plant stress responses and development. More recently, formation of JA-amino acid conjugates and high biological activity of JA-Isoleucine (JA-Ile) were found to be essential in JA signalling. A breakthrough was the identification of JAZ proteins which interact with the F-box protein COI1 if JA-Ile is bound. This interaction leads to proteasomal degradation of JAZs being negative regulators of JA-induced transcription. Surprisingly, a distinct stereoisomer of JA-Ile, the (+)-7-iso-JA-Ile ((3R,7S) form) is most active. Coronatine, a bacterial phytotoxine with an identical stereochemistry at the cyclopentanone ring, has a similar bioactivity . This was explained by the recent identification of COI1 as the JA receptor and accords well with molecular modelling studies. Whereas over the last two decades JA was quantified to describe any JA dependent process, now we have to take into account a distinct stereoisomer of JA-Ile. Until recently a quantitative analysis of (+)-7-iso-JA-Ile was missing presumable due to its equilibration to (-)-JA-Ile. Now such an analysis was achieved. These aspects will be discussed based on our new knowledge on JA perception and signalling.
Publikation

Stumpe, M.; Göbel, C.; Faltin, B.; Beike, A. K.; Hause, B.; Himmelsbach, K.; Bode, J.; Kramell, R.; Wasternack, C.; Frank, W.; Reski, R.; Feussner, I.; The moss Physcomitrella patens contains cyclopentenones but no jasmonates: mutations in allene oxide cyclase lead to reduced fertility and altered sporophyte morphology New Phytol. 188, 740-749, (2010) DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03406.x

Two cDNAs encoding allene oxide cyclases (PpAOC1, PpAOC2), key enzymes in the formation of jasmonic acid (JA) and its precursor (9S,13S)‐12‐oxo‐phytodienoic acid (cis‐(+)‐OPDA), were isolated from the moss Physcomitrella patens.Recombinant PpAOC1 and PpAOC2 show substrate specificity against the allene oxide derived from 13‐hydroperoxy linolenic acid (13‐HPOTE); PpAOC2 also shows substrate specificity against the allene oxide derived from 12‐hydroperoxy arachidonic acid (12‐HPETE).In protonema and gametophores the occurrence of cis‐(+)‐OPDA, but neither JA nor the isoleucine conjugate of JA nor that of cis‐(+)‐OPDA was detected.Targeted knockout mutants for PpAOC1 and for PpAOC2 were generated, while double mutants could not be obtained. The ΔPpAOC1 and ΔPpAOC2 mutants showed reduced fertility, aberrant sporophyte morphology and interrupted sporogenesis.
Publikation

Wasternack, C.; Goetz, S.; Hellwege, A.; Forner, S.; Strnad, M.; Hause, B.; Another JA/COI1-independent role of OPDA detected in tomato embryo development Plant Signal Behav. 7, 1349-1353, (2012) DOI: 10.4161/psb.21551

Jasmonates (JAs) are ubiquitously occurring signaling compounds in plants formed in response to biotic and abiotic stress as well as in development. (+)-7-iso-jasmonoyl isoleucine, the bioactive JA, is involved in most JA-dependent processes mediated by the F-box protein COI1 in a proteasome-dependent manner. However, there is an increasing number of examples, where the precursor of JA biosynthesis, cis-(+)-12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) is active in a JA/COI1-independent manner. Here, we discuss those OPDA-dependent processes, thereby giving emphasis on tomato embryo development. Recent data on seed coat-generated OPDA and its role in embryo development is discussed based on biochemical and genetic evidences.
Publikation

Weichert, H.; Kohlmann, M.; Wasternack, C.; Feussner, I.; Metabolic profiling of oxylipins upon sorbitol treatment in barley leaves Biochem. Soc. Trans. 28, 861-862, (2001) DOI: 10.1042/bst0280861

In barley leaves 13-lipoxygenases (LOXs) are induced by salicylate and jasmonate. Here, we analyse by metabolic profiling the accumulation of oxylipins upon sorbitol treatment. Although 13-LOX-derived products are formed and specifically directed into the reductase branch of the LOX pathway, accumulation is much later than in the cases of salicylate and jasmonate treatment. In addition, under these conditions only the accumulation of jasmonates as additional products of the LOX pathway has been found.
Publikation

Wasternack, C.; The Trojan horse coronatine: the COI1-JAZ2-MYC2,3,4-ANAC019,055,072 module in stomata dynamics upon bacterial infection New Phytol. 213, 972-975, (2017) DOI: 10.1111/nph.14417

This article is a Commentary on Gimenez‐Ibanez et al., 213: 1378–1392.
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