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Publikationen - Molekulare Signalverarbeitung

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Publikation

Hause, B.; zur Nieden, U.; Lehmann, J.; Wasternack, C.; Parthier, B.; Intracellular Localization of Jasmonate-Induced Proteins in Barley Leaves Bot. Acta 107, 333-341, (1994) DOI: 10.1111/j.1438-8677.1994.tb00804.x

The plant growth substance jasmonic acid and its methyl ester (JA‐Me) induce a set of proteins (jasmonate‐induced proteins, JIPs) when applied to leaf segments of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Salome). Most of these JIPs could be localized within different cell compartments by using a combination of biochemical and histochemical methods. Isolation and purification of various cell organelles of barley mesophyll cells, the separation of their proteins by one‐dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the identification of the major abundant JIPs by Western blot analysis, as well as the immuno‐gold labelling of JIPs in ultrathin sections were performed to localize JIPs intracellularly. JIP‐23 was found to be in vacuoles, peroxisomes, and in the granular parts of the nucleus as well as within the cytoplasm; JIP‐37 was detected in vacuoles and in the nucleoplasm; JIP‐66 is a cytosolic protein. Some less abundant JIPs were also localized within different cell compartments: JIP‐100 was found within the stromal fraction of chloroplasts; JIP‐70 is present in the peroxisome and the nucleus; JIP‐50 and JIP‐6 accumulate in vacuoles. The location of JIP‐66 and JIP‐6 confirms their possible physiological role deduced from molecular analysis of their cDNA.
Publikation

Kogel, K.-H.; Ortel, B.; Jarosch, B.; Atzorn, R.; Schiffer, R.; Wasternack, C.; Resistance in barley against the powdery mildew fungus (Erysiphe graminis f.sp.hordei) is not associated with enhanced levels of endogenous jasmonates Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 101, 319-332, (1995) DOI: 10.1007/BF01874788

Onset of acquired resistance of barley (Hordeum vulgare) chemically induced by 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (DCINA) correlated with the accumulation of mRNA homologous to cDNA pHvJ256 which codes for a soluble leaf-thionin with a Mr. of 6 kDa [Wasternacket al., 1994a]. In the present work, we extend this finding by showing that the thionin transcript also accumulated following treatment of barley with the resistance-inducing compounds 3,5-dichlorosalicylic acid (DCSA), salicylic acid (SA), and an extract fromBacillus subtilis. The polypeptide showed antifungal activity against the biotrophic cereal pathogensErysiphe graminis f.sp.hordei andPuccinia graminis f.sp.tritici which may indicate a possible role in the mechanism of acquired resistance in barley. A thionin transcript hybridizing to pHvJ256 accumulated also in response to application of jasmonates, or treatments that elevated endogenous amounts of the plant growth substance, pointing to the possibility that signaling mediating defense responses in barley involves jasmonates. However, a topical spray application of jasmonic acid (JA) or jasmonate methyl ester (JM) did not protect barley leaves against infection byE. graminis. Performing a kinetic analysis by an enzyme immunoassay specific for (−)-JA, (−)-JM, and its amino acid conjugates, accumulation of jasmonates was detected in osmotically stressed barley but not at the onset of chemically induced or genetically based resistance governed by the powdery mildew resistance genesMlg, Mla 12, ormlo 5. Furthermore, the jasmonate-inducible proteins JIP-23 and JIP-60 were strongly induced following JM- but not DCINA-treatment or inoculation withE. graminis. Hence, in barley, no indications were found in favour for the previously proposed model of a lipid-based signaling pathway via jasmonates mediating expression of resistance in plants against pathogens.
Publikation

Feussner, I.; Hause, B.; Vörös, K.; Parthier, B.; Wasternack, C.; Jasmonate-induced lipoxygenase forms are localized in chloroplasts of barley leaves (Hordeum vulgare cv. Salome) Plant J. 7, 949-957, (1995) DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-313X.1995.07060949.x

Barley leaves respond to application of (−)‐jasmonic acid (JA), or its methylester (JM) with the synthesis of abundant proteins, so‐called jasmonate induced proteins (JIPs). Here Western blot analysis is used to show a remarkable increase upon JM treatment of a 100 kDa lipoxygenase (LOX), and the appearance of two new LOX forms of 98 and 92 kDa. The temporal increase of LOX‐100 protein upon JM treatment was clearly distinguishable from the additionally detectable LOX forms. JM‐induced LOX forms in barley leaves were compared with those of Arabidopsis and soybean leaves. Both dicot species showed a similar increase of one LOX upon JM induction, whereas, leaves from soybean responded with additional synthesis of a newly formed LOX of 94 kDa.Using immunofluorescence analysis and isolation of intact chloroplasts, it is demonstrated that JM‐induced LOX forms of barley leaves are exclusively located in the chloroplasts of all chloroplast‐containing cells. Analogous experiments carried out with Arabidopsis and soybean revealed a similar plastidic location of JM‐induced LOX forms in Arabidopsis but a different situation for soybean. In untreated soybean leaves the LOX protein was mainly restricted to vacuoles of paraveinal mesophyll cells. Additionally, LOX forms could be detected in cytoplasm and nuclei of bundle sheath cells. Upon JM treatment cytosolic LOX was detectable in spongy mesophyll cells, too. The intracellular location of JM‐induced LOX is discussed in terms of stress‐related phenomena mediated by JM.
Publikation

Hause, B.; Feussner, K.; Wasternack, C.; Nuclear Location of a Diadenosine 5′,5′”-P1,P4Tetraphosphate (Ap4A) Hydrolase in Tomato Cells Grown in Suspension Cultures Bot. Acta 110, 452-457, (1997) DOI: 10.1111/j.1438-8677.1997.tb00662.x

Diadenosine 5′,5′”‐P1,P4‐tetraphosphate (Ap4A) cleaving enzymes are assumed to regulate intracellular levels of Ap4A, a compound known to affect cell proliferation and stress responses. From plants an Ap4A hydrolase was recently purified using tomato cells grown in suspension. It was partially sequenced and a peptide antibody was prepared (Feussner et al., 1996). Using this polyclonal monospecific antibody, an abundant nuclear location of Ap4A hydrolase in 4‐day‐old cells of atomato cell suspension culture is demonstrated here by means of immunocytochemical techniques using FITC (fluorescein‐5‐isothiocyanate) labeled secondary antibodies. The microscopic analysis of the occurrence of Ap4A hydrolase performed for different stages of the cell cycle visualized by parallel DAPI (4,6‐diamidino‐2‐phenylindole) staining revealed that the protein accumulates within nuclei of cells in the interphase, but is absent in the nucleus as well as cytoplasm during all stages of mitosis. This first intracellular localization of an Ap4A degrading enzyme within the nucleus and its pattern of appearance during the cell cycle is discussed in relation to the suggested role of Ap4A in triggering DNA synthesis and cell proliferation.
Publikation

Feussner, I.; Fritz, I. G.; Hause, B.; Ullrich, W. R.; Wasternack, C.; Induction of a new Lipoxygenase Form in Cucumber Leaves by Salicylic Acid or 2,6-Dichloroisonicotinic Acid Bot. Acta 110, 101-108, (1997) DOI: 10.1111/j.1438-8677.1997.tb00616.x

Changes in lipoxygenase (LOX) protein pattern and/or activity were investigated in relation to acquired resistance of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) leaves against two powdery mildews, Sphaerotheca fuliginea (Schlecht) Salmon and Erysiphe cichoracearum DC et Merat. Acquired resistance was established by spraying leaves with salicylic acid (SA) or 2,6‐dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA) and estimated in whole plants by infested leaf area compared to control plants. SA was more effective than INA. According to Western blots, untreated cucumber leaves contained a 97 kDa LOX form, which remained unchanged for up to 48 h after pathogen inoculation. Upon treatment with SA alone for 24 h or with INA plus pathogen, an additional 95 kDa LOX form appeared which had an isoelectric point in the alkaline range. For the induction of this form, a threshold concentration of 1 mM SA was required, higher SA concentrations did not change LOX‐95 expression which remained similar between 24 h and 96 h but further increased upon mildew inoculation. Phloem exudates contained only the LOX‐97 form, in intercellular washing fluid no LOX was detected. dichloroisonicotinic localization revealed LOX protein in the cytosol of the mesophyll cells without differences between the forms.
Publikation

Wasternack, C.; Parthier, B.; Jasmonate-signalled plant gene expression Trends Plant Sci. 2, 302-307, (1997) DOI: 10.1016/S1360-1385(97)89952-9

Jasmonic acid is distributed throughout higher plants, synthesized from linolenic acid via the octadecanoic pathway. An important and probably essential role seems to be its operation as a ‘master switch’, responsible for the activation of signal transduction pathways in response to predation and pathogen attack. Proteins encoded by jasmonate-induced genes include enzymes of alkaloid and phytoalexin synthesis, storage proteins, cell wall constituents and stress protectants. The wound-induced formation of proteinase inhibitors is a well-studied example, in which jasmonic acid combines with abscisic acid and ethylene to protect the plant from predation.
Publikation

Vignutelli, A.; Wasternack, C.; Apel, K.; Bohlmann, H.; Systemic and local induction of an Arabidopsis thionin gene by wounding and pathogens Plant J. 14, 285-295, (1998) DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-313X.1998.00117.x

The Arabidopsis Thi2.1 thionin gene was cloned and sequenced. The promoter was fused to the uidA gene and stably transformed into Arabidopsis to study its regulation. GUS expression levels correlated with the steady‐state levels of Thi2.1 mRNA, thus demonstrating that the promoter is sufficient for the regulation of the Thi2.1 gene. The sensitivity of the Thi2.1 gene to methyl jasmonate was found to be developmentally determined. Systemic and local expression could be induced by wounding and inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f sp. matthiolae . A deletion analysis of the promoter identified a fragment of 325 bp upstream of the start codon, which appears to contain all the elements necessary for the regulation of the Thi2.1 gene. These results support the view that thionins are defence proteins, and indicate the possibility that resistance of Arabidopsis plants to necrotrophic fungal pathogens is mediated through the octadecanoid pathway.
Publikation

Maucher, H.; Hause, B.; Feussner, I.; Ziegler, J.; Wasternack, C.; Allene oxide synthases of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Salome): tissue specific regulation in seedling development Plant J. 21, 199-213, (2000) DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-313x.2000.00669.x

Allene oxide synthase (AOS) is the first enzyme in the lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway which leads to formation of jasmonic acid (JA). Two full‐length cDNAs of AOS designated as AOS1 and AOS2, respectively, were isolated from barley (H. vulgare cv. Salome) leaves, which represent the first AOS clones from a monocotyledonous species. For AOS1, the open reading frame encompasses 1461 bp encoding a polypeptide of 487 amino acids with calculated molecular mass of 53.4 kDa and an isoelectric point of 9.3, whereas the corresponding data of AOS2 are 1443 bp, 480 amino acids, 52.7 kDa and 7.9. Southern blot analysis revealed at least two genes. Despite the lack of a putative chloroplast signal peptide in both sequences, the protein co‐purified with chloroplasts and was localized within chloroplasts by immunocytochemical analysis. The barley AOSs, expressed in bacteria as active enzymes, catalyze the dehydration of LOX‐derived 9‐ as well as 13‐hydroperoxides of polyenoic fatty acids to the unstable allene oxides. In leaves, AOS mRNA accumulated upon treatment with jasmonates, octadecanoids and metabolizable carbohydrates, but not upon floating on abscisic acid, NaCl, Na‐salicylate or infection with powdery mildew. In developing seedlings, AOS mRNA strongly accumulated in the scutellar nodule, but less in the leaf base. Both tissues exhibited elevated JA levels. In situ hybridizations revealed the preferential occurrence of AOS mRNA in parenchymatic cells surrounding the vascular bundles of the scutellar nodule and in the young convoluted leaves as well as within the first internode. The properties of both barley AOSs, their up‐regulation of their mRNAs and their tissue specific expression suggest a role during seedling development and jasmonate biosynthesis.
Publikation

Hause, B.; Stenzel, I.; Miersch, O.; Maucher, H.; Kramell, R.; Ziegler, J.; Wasternack, C.; Tissue-specific oxylipin signature of tomato flowers: allene oxide cyclase is highly expressed in distinct flower organs and vascular bundles Plant J. 24, 113-126, (2000) DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-313x.2000.00861.x

A crucial step in the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid (JA) is the formation of its correct stereoisomeric precursor, cis (+)12‐oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA). This step is catalysed by allene oxide cyclase (AOC), which has been recently cloned from tomato . In stems, young leaves and young flowers, AOC mRNA accumulates to a low level , contrasting with a high accumulation in flower buds, flower stalks and roots. The high levels of AOC mRNA and AOC protein in distinct flower organs correlate with high AOC activity, and with elevated levels of JA, OPDA and JA isoleucine conjugate. These compounds accumulate in flowers to levels of about 20 nmol g−1 fresh weight, which is two orders of magnitude higher than in leaves. In pistils, the level of OPDA is much higher than that of JA, whereas in flower stalks, the level of JA exceeds that of OPDA. In other flower tissues, the ratios among JA, OPDA and JA isoleucine conjugate differ remarkably, suggesting a tissue‐specific oxylipin signature. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed the specific occurrence of the AOC protein in ovules, the transmission tissue of the style and in vascular bundles of receptacles, flower stalks, stems, petioles and roots. Based on the tissue‐specific AOC expression and formation of JA, OPDA and JA amino acid conjugates, a possible role for these compounds in flower development is discussed in terms of their effect on sink–source relationships and plant defence reactions. Furthermore, the AOC expression in vascular bundles might play a role in the systemin‐mediated wound response of tomato.
Publikation

Weichert, H.; Kolbe, A.; Wasternack, C.; Feussner, I.; Formation of 4-hydroxy-2-alkenals in barley leaves Biochem. Soc. Trans. 28, 850-851, (2000) DOI: 10.1042/bst0280850

In barley leaves 13-lipoxygenases are induced by jasmonates. This leads to induction of lipid peroxidation. Here we show by in vitro studies that these processes may further lead to autoxidative formation of (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal from (3Z)-hexenal.
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