Iglesias, M. J.; Terrile, M. C.; Correa-Aragunde, N.; Colman, S. L.; Izquierdo-Álvarez, A.; Fiol, D. F.; París, R.; Sánchez-López, N.; Marina, A.; Calderón Villalobos, L. I. A.; Estelle, M.; Lamattina, L.; Martínez-Ruiz, A.; Casalongué, C. A. Regulation of SCFTIR1/AFBs E3 ligase assembly by S-nitrosylation of Arabidopsis SKP1-like1 impacts on auxin signaling Redox Biol 18, 200-210, (2018) DOI: 10.1016/j.redox.2018.07.003
The F-box proteins (FBPs) TIR1/AFBs are the
substrate recognition subunits of SKP1–cullin–F-box (SCF) ubiquitin
ligase complexes and together with Aux/IAAs form the auxin co-receptor.
Although tremendous knowledge on auxin perception and signaling has been
gained in the last years, SCFTIR1/AFBs complex assembly and
stabilization are emerging as new layers of regulation. Here, we
investigated how nitric oxide (NO), through S-nitrosylation of ASK1 is
involved in SCFTIR1/AFBs assembly. We demonstrate that ASK1 is
S-nitrosylated and S-glutathionylated in cysteine (Cys) 37 and Cys118
residues in vitro. Both, in vitro and in vivo protein-protein
interaction assays show that NO enhances ASK1 binding to CUL1 and
TIR1/AFB2, required for SCFTIR1/AFB2 assembly. In addition, we
demonstrate that Cys37 and Cys118 are essential residues for proper
activation of auxin signaling pathway in planta. Phylogenetic analysis
revealed that Cys37 residue is only conserved in SKP proteins in
Angiosperms, suggesting that S-nitrosylation on Cys37 could represent an
evolutionary adaption for SKP1 function in flowering plants.
Collectively, these findings indicate that multiple events of redox
modifications might be part of a fine-tuning regulation of SCFTIR1/AFBs
for proper auxin signal transduction.
Bagchi, R.; Melnyk, C. W.; Christ, G.; Winkler, M.; Kirchsteiner, K.; Salehin, M.; Mergner, J.; Niemeyer, M.; Schwechheimer, C.; Calderón Villalobos, L. I. A.; Estelle, M. The Arabidopsis ALF4 protein is a regulator of SCF E3 ligases. EMBO J 37, 255-268, (2018) DOI: 10.15252/embj.201797159
The cullin-RING E3 ligases (CRLs) regulate diverse cellular processes in all eukaryotes. CRL activity is controlled by several proteins or protein complexes, including NEDD8, CAND1, and the CSN. Recently, a mammalian protein called Glomulin (GLMN) was shown to inhibit CRLs by binding to the RING BOX (RBX1) subunit and preventing binding to the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Here, we show that Arabidopsis ABERRANT LATERAL ROOT FORMATION4 (ALF4) is an ortholog of GLMN. The alf4 mutant exhibits a phenotype that suggests defects in plant hormone response. We show that ALF4 binds to RBX1 and inhibits the activity of SCFTIR1, an E3 ligase responsible for degradation of the Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors. In vivo, the alf4 mutation destabilizes the CUL1 subunit of the SCF. Reduced CUL1 levels are associated with increased levels of the Aux/IAA proteins as well as the DELLA repressors, substrate of SCFSLY1. We propose that the alf4 phenotype is partly due to increased levels of the Aux/IAA and DELLA proteins.
García, M. L.; Bó, E. D.; da Graça, J. V.; Gago-Zachert, S.; Hammond, J.; Moreno, P.; Natsuaki, T.; Pallás, V.; Navarro, J. A.; Reyes, C. A.; Luna, G. R.; Sasaya, T.; Tzanetakis, I. E.; Vaira, A. M.; Verbeek, M.; ICTV Report Consortium Corrigendum: ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Ophioviridae J Gen Virol 99, 949-949, (2018) DOI: 10.1099/jgv.0.001093
Ziegler, J.; Schmidt, S.; Strehmel, N.; Scheel, D.; Abel, S. Arabidopsis Transporter ABCG37/PDR9 contributes primarily highly oxygenated Coumarins to Root Exudation Sci Rep 7, 3704, (2017) DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-03250-6
The chemical composition of root exudates strongly
impacts the interactions of plants with microorganisms in the
rhizosphere and the efficiency of nutrient acquisition. Exudation of
metabolites is in part mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC)
transporters. In order to assess the contribution of individual ABC
transporters to root exudation, we performed an LC-MS based non-targeted
metabolite profiling of semi-polar metabolites accumulating in root
exudates of Arabidopsis thaliana plants and mutants deficient in the
expression of ABCG36 (PDR8/PEN3), ABCG37 (PDR9) or both transporters.
Comparison of the metabolite profiles indicated distinct roles for each
ABC transporter in root exudation. Thymidine exudation could be
attributed to ABCG36 function, whereas coumarin exudation was strongly
reduced only in ABCG37 deficient plants. However, coumarin exudation was
compromised in abcg37 mutants only with respect to certain metabolites
of this substance class. The specificity of ABCG37 for individual
coumarins was further verified by a targeted LC-MS based coumarin
profiling method. The response to iron deficiency, which is known to
strongly induce coumarin exudation, was also investigated. In either
treatment, the distribution of individual coumarins between roots and
exudates in the investigated genotypes suggested the involvement of
ABCG37 in the exudation specifically of highly oxygenated rather than
Ibañez, C.; Poeschl, Y.; Peterson, T.; Bellstädt, J.; Denk, K.; Gogol-Döring, A.; Quint, M.; Delker, C. Ambient temperature and genotype differentially affect developmental and phenotypic plasticity in Arabidopsis thaliana BMC Plant Biol 17, 114, (2017) DOI: 10.1186/s12870-017-1068-5
BackgroundGlobal increase in ambient temperatures
constitute a significant challenge to wild and cultivated plant species.
Forward genetic analyses of individual temperature-responsive traits
have resulted in the identification of several signaling and response
components. However, a comprehensive knowledge about temperature
sensitivity of different developmental stages and the contribution of
natural variation is still scarce and fragmented at best.ResultsHere, we
systematically analyze thermomorphogenesis throughout a complete life
cycle in ten natural Arabidopsis thaliana accessions grown under long
day conditions in four different temperatures ranging from 16 to 28 °C.
We used Q10, GxE, phenotypic divergence and correlation analyses to
assess temperature sensitivity and genotype effects of more than 30
morphometric and developmental traits representing five phenotype
classes. We found that genotype and temperature differentially affected
plant growth and development with variing strengths. Furthermore,
overall correlations among phenotypic temperature responses was
relatively low which seems to be caused by differential capacities for
temperature adaptations of individual
accessions.ConclusionGenotype-specific temperature responses may be
attractive targets for future forward genetic approaches and
accession-specific thermomorphogenesis maps may aid the assessment of
functional relevance of known and novel regulatory components.
García, M. L.; Bó, E. D.; da Graça, J. V.; Gago-Zachert, S.; Hammond, J.; Moreno, P.; Natsuaki, T.; Pallás, V.; Navarro, J. A.; Reyes, C. A.; Luna, G. R.; Sasaya, T.; Tzanetakis, I. E.; Vaira, A. M.; Verbeek, M.; ICTV Report Consortium ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Ophioviridae J Gen Virol 98 , 1161-1162, (2017) DOI: 10.1099/jgv.0.000836
Ophioviridae,The Ophioviridae is a family of filamentous plant viruses, with single-stranded negative, and possibly ambisense, RNA genomes of 11.3–12.5 kb divided into 3–4 segments, each encapsidated separately. Virions are naked filamentous nucleocapsids, forming kinked circles of at least two different contour lengths. The sole genus, Ophiovirus, includes seven species. Four ophioviruses are soil-transmitted and their natural hosts include trees, shrubs, vegetables and bulbous or corm-forming ornamentals, both monocots and dicots. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the which is available at http://www.ictv.global/report/ophioviridae.
Ibañez, C.; Poeschl, Y.; Peterson, T.; Bellstädt, J.; Denk, K.; Gogol-Döring, A.; Quint, M.; Delker, C. Ambient temperature and genotype differentially affect developmental and phenotypic plasticity in Arabidopsis thaliana bioRxiv (2017) DOI: 10.1101/017285
Background: Global increase in ambient temperatures constitute a significant challenge to wild and cultivated plant species. Forward genetic analyses of individual temperature-responsive traits have resulted in the identification of several signaling and response components. However, a comprehensive knowledge about temperature sensitivity of different developmental stages and the contribution of natural variation is still scarce and fragmented at best. Results: Here, we systematically analyze thermomorphogenesis throughout a complete life cycle in ten natural Arabidopsis thaliana accessions grown in four different temperatures ranging from 16 to 28 °C. We used Q 10 , GxE, phenotypic divergence and correlation analyses to assess temperature sensitivity and genotype effects of more than 30 morphometric and developmental traits representing five phenotype classes. We found that genotype and temperature differentially affected plant growth and development with variing strengths. Furthermore, overall correlations among phenotypic temperature responses was relatively low which seems to be caused by differential capacities for temperature adaptations of individual accessions. Conclusion: Genotype-specific temperature responses may be attractive targets for future forward genetic approaches and accession-specific thermomorphogenesis maps may aid the assessment of functional relevance of known and novel regulatory components.
Drost, H.-G.; Bellstädt, J.; Ó'Maoiléidigh, D. S.; Silva, A. T.; Gabel, A.; Weinholdt, C.; Ryan, P. T.; Dekkers, B. J. W.; Bentsink, L.; Hilhorst, H. W. M.; Ligterink, W.; Wellmer, F.; Grosse, I.; Quint, M. Post-embryonic Hourglass Patterns Mark Ontogenetic Transitions in Plant Development Mol Biol Evol 33, 1158-1163, (2016) DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msw039
The historic developmental hourglass concept depicts the convergence of animal embryos to a common form during the phylotypic period. Recently, it has been shown that a transcriptomic hourglass is associated with this morphological pattern, consistent with the idea of underlying selective constraints due to intense molecular interactions during body plan establishment. Although plants do not exhibit a morphological hourglass during embryogenesis, a transcriptomic hourglass has nevertheless been identified in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we investigated whether plant hourglass patterns are also found postembryonically. We found that the two main phase changes during the life cycle of Arabidopsis, from embryonic to vegetative and from vegetative to reproductive development, are associated with transcriptomic hourglass patterns. In contrast, flower development, a process dominated by organ formation, is not. This suggests that plant hourglass patterns are decoupled from organogenesis and body plan establishment. Instead, they may reflect general transitions through organizational checkpoints.
Ziegler, J.; Schmidt, S.; Chutia, R.; Müller, J.; Böttcher, C.; Strehmel, N.; Scheel, D.; Abel, S. Non-targeted profiling of semi-polar metabolites
in Arabidopsis root exudates uncovers a role for coumarin secretion and
lignification during the local response to phosphate limitation J Exp Bot 67, 1421-1432, (2016) DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erv539
Plants have evolved two major strategies to cope with phosphate (Pi) limitation. The systemic response, mainly comprising increased Pi uptake and metabolic adjustments for more efficient Pi use, and the local response, enabling plants to explore Pi-rich soil patches by reorganization of the root system architecture. Unlike previous reports, this study focused on root exudation controlled by the local response to Pi deficiency. To approach this, a hydroponic system separating the local and systemic responses was developed. Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes exhibiting distinct sensitivities to Pi deficiency could be clearly distinguished by their root exudate composition as determined by non-targeted reversed-phase ultraperformance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry metabolite profiling. Compared with wild-type plants or insensitive low phosphate root 1 and 2 (lpr1 lpr2) double mutant plants, the hypersensitive phosphate deficiency response 2 (pdr2) mutant exhibited a reduced number of differential features in root exudates after Pi starvation, suggesting the involvement of PDR2-encoded P5-type ATPase in root exudation. Identification and analysis of coumarins revealed common and antagonistic regulatory pathways between Pi and Fe deficiency-induced coumarin secretion. The accumulation of oligolignols in root exudates after Pi deficiency was inversely correlated with Pi starvation-induced lignification at the root tips. The strongest oligolignol accumulation in root exudates was observed for the insensitive lpr1 lpr2 double mutant, which was accompanied by the absence of Pi deficiency-induced lignin deposition, suggesting a role of LPR ferroxidases in lignin polymerization during Pi starvation.
Strehmel, N.; Mönchgesang, S.; Herklotz, S.; Krüger, S.; Ziegler, J.; Scheel, D. Piriformospora indica Stimulates Root Metabolism of Arabidopsis thaliana Int J Mol Sci 17, 1091, (2016) DOI: 10.3390/ijms17071091
Piriformospora indica is a root-colonizing fungus, which interacts with a variety of plants including Arabidopsis thaliana. This interaction has been considered as mutualistic leading to growth promotion of the host. So far, only indolic glucosinolates and phytohormones have been identified as key players. In a comprehensive non-targeted metabolite profiling study, we analyzed Arabidopsis thaliana’s roots, root exudates, and leaves of inoculated and non-inoculated plants by ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/(ESI)-QTOFMS) and gas chromatography/electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/EI-QMS), and identified further biomarkers. Among them, the concentration of nucleosides, dipeptides, oligolignols, and glucosinolate degradation products was affected in the exudates. In the root profiles, nearly all metabolite levels increased upon co-cultivation, like carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, glucosinolates, oligolignols, and flavonoids. In the leaf profiles, we detected by far less significant changes. We only observed an increased concentration of organic acids, carbohydrates, ascorbate, glucosinolates and hydroxycinnamic acids, and a decreased concentration of nitrogen-rich amino acids in inoculated plants. These findings contribute to the understanding of symbiotic interactions between plant roots and fungi of the order of Sebacinales and are a valid source for follow-up mechanistic studies, because these symbioses are particular and clearly different from interactions of roots with mycorrhizal fungi or dark septate endophytes