Hause, B.; Maier, W.; Miersch, O.; Kramell, R.; Strack, D. Induction of jasmonate biosynthesis in arbuscular mycorrhizal barley roots Plant Physiol. 130, 1213-1220, (2002) DOI: 10.1104/pp.006007
Colonization of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Salome) roots by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith, leads to elevated levels of endogenous jasmonic acid (JA) and its amino acid conjugate JA-isoleucine, whereas the level of the JA precursor, oxophytodienoic acid, remains constant. The rise in jasmonates is accompanied by the expression of genes coding for an enzyme of JA biosynthesis (allene oxide synthase) and of a jasmonate-induced protein (JIP23). In situ hybridization and immunocytochemical analysis revealed that expression of these genes occurred cell specifically within arbuscule-containing root cortex cells. The concomitant gene expression indicates that jasmonates are generated and act within arbuscule-containing cells. By use of a near-synchronous mycorrhization, analysis of temporal expression patterns showed the occurrence of transcript accumulation 4 to 6 d after the appearance of the first arbuscules. This suggests that the endogenous rise in jasmonates might be related to the fully established symbiosis rather than to the recognition of interacting partners or to the onset of interaction. Because the plant supplies the fungus with carbohydrates, a model is proposed in which the induction of JA biosynthesis in colonized roots is linked to the stronger sink function of mycorrhizal roots compared with nonmycorrhizal roots.
Laskowski, M.J.; Dreher, K.A.; Gehring, M.; Abel, S.; Gensler, A.; Sussex, I.M. FQR1, a novel primary auxin-response gene, encodes an FMN-binding quinone reductase. Plant Physiology 128, 578-686, (2002)
FQR1 is a novel primary auxin-response gene that codes for a flavin mononucleotide-binding flavodoxin-like quinone reductase. Accumulation of FQR1 mRNA begins within 10 min of indole-3-acetic acid application and reaches a maximum of approximately 10-fold induction 30 min after treatment. This increase in FQR1 mRNA abundance is not diminished by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, demonstrating thatFQR1 is a primary auxin-response gene. Sequence analysis reveals that FQR1 belongs to a family of flavin mononucleotide-binding quinone reductases. Partially purified His-tagged FQR1 isolated fromEscherichia coli catalyzes the transfer of electrons from NADH and NADPH to several substrates and exhibits in vitro quinone reductase activity. Overexpression of FQR1 in plants leads to increased levels of FQR1 protein and quinone reductase activity, indicating that FQR1 functions as a quinone reductase in vivo. In mammalian systems, glutathione S-transferases and quinone reductases are classified as phase II detoxification enzymes. We hypothesize that the auxin-inducible glutathioneS-transferases and quinone reductases found in plants also act as detoxification enzymes, possibly to protect against auxin-induced oxidative stress.
Vigliocco, A.; Bonamico, M.B.; Alemano, S.; Miersch, O.; Abdala, G. Activation of jasmonic acid production in <EM>Zea mays</EM> L. infected by the maize rough dwarf virus-Río Cuarto. Reversion of symptoms by salicylic acid Biocell 26(3), 369-374, (2002)
Wang, Q.; Grubb, C.D.; Abel, S. Direct analysis of single leaf disks for chemopreventive glucosinolates Phytochem Anal 13, 152 - 157, (2002) DOI: 10.1002/pca.636
Natural isothiocyanates, produced during plant tissue damage from methionine-derived glucosinolates, are potent inducers of mammalian phase 2 detoxification enzymes such as quinone reductase (QR). A greatly simplified bioassay for glucosinolates based on induction and colorimetric detection of QR activity in murine hepatoma cells is described. It is demonstrated that excised leaf disks of Arabidopsis thaliana (ecotype Columbia) can directly and reproducibly substitute for cell-free leaf extracts as inducers of murine QR, which reduces sample preparation to a minimum and maximizes throughput. A comparison of 1 and 3 mm diameter leaf disks indicated that QR inducer potency was proportional to disk circumference (extent of tissue damage) rather than to area. When compared to the QR inducer potency of the corresponding amount of extract, 1 mm leaf disks were equally effective, whereas 3 mm disks were 70% as potent. The QR inducer potency of leaf disks correlated positively with the content of methionine-derived glucosinolates, as shown by the analysis of wild-type plants and mutant lines with lower or higher glucosinolate content. Thus, the microtitre plate-based assay of single leaf disks provides a robust and inexpensive visual method for rapidly screening large numbers of plants in mapping populations or mutant collections and may be applicable to other glucosinolate-producing species.
Grubb, C.D.; Gross, H.B.; Chen, D.L.; Abel, S. Identification of <em>Arabidopsis</em> mutants with altered glucosinolate profiles based on isothiocyanate bioactivity Plant Sci 162, 143 - 152, (2002) DOI: 10.1016/S0168-9452(01)00550-7
Glucosinolates are a diverse class of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing secondary metabolites. They are rapidly hydrolyzed on tissue disruption to a number of biologically active compounds that are increasingly attracting interest as anticarcinogenic phytochemicals and crop protectants. Several glucosinolate-derived isothiocyanates are potent chemopreventive agents that favorably modulate carcinogen metabolism in mammals. Methylsulfinylalkyl isothiocyanates, in particular the 4-methylsulfinylbutyl derivative, are selective and potent inducers of mammalian detoxification enzymes such as quinone reductase (QR). Cruciferous plants including Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heyhn, synthesize methylsulfinylalkyl glucosinolates, which are derived from methionine. Using a colorimetric assay for QR activity in murine hepatoma cells and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of desulfoglucosinolates, we have demonstrated a strong positive correlation between leaf QR inducer potency and leaf content of methionine-derived glucosinolates in various A. thaliana ecotypes and available glucosinolate mutants. In a molecular genetic approach to glucosinolate biosynthesis, we screened 3000 chemically mutagenized M2 plants of the Columbia ecotype for altered leaf QR inducer potency. Subsequent HPLC analysis of progeny of putative mutants identified six lines with significant and heritable changes in leaf glucosinolate content and composition.