Ludwig, A. A.; Saitoh, H.; Felix, G.; Freymark, G.; Miersch, O.; Wasternack, C.; Boller, T.; Jones, J. D. G.; Romeis, T.; Ethylene-mediated cross-talk between calcium-dependent protein kinase and MAPK signaling controls stress responses in plants Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 10736-10741, (2005) DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0502954102
Plants are constantly exposed to environmental changes and need to integrate multiple external stress cues. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are implicated as major primary Ca2+ sensors in plants. CDPK activation, like activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), is triggered by biotic and abiotic stresses, although distinct stimulus-specific stress responses are induced. To investigate whether CDPKs are part of an underlying mechanism to guarantee response specificity, we identified CDPK-controlled signaling pathways. A truncated form of Nicotiana tabacum CDPK2 lacking its regulatory autoinhibitor and calcium-binding domains was ectopically expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. Infiltrated leaves responded to an abiotic stress stimulus with the activation of biotic stress reactions. These responses included synthesis of reactive oxygen species, defense gene induction, and SGT1-dependent cell death. Furthermore, N-terminal CDPK2 signaling triggered enhanced levels of the phytohormones jasmonic acid, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, and ethylene but not salicylic acid. These responses, commonly only observed after challenge with a strong biotic stimulus, were prevented when the CDPK's intrinsic autoinhibitory peptide was coexpressed. Remarkably, elevated CDPK signaling compromised stress-induced MAPK activation, and this inhibition required ethylene synthesis and perception. These data indicate that CDPK and MAPK pathways do not function independently and that a concerted activation of both pathways controls response specificity to biotic and abiotic stress.
Gerhardt, B.; Fischer, K.; Balkenhohl, T. J.; Pohnert, G.; Kühn, H.; Wasternack, C.; Feussner, I.; Lipoxygenase-mediated metabolism of storage lipids in germinating sunflower cotyledons and β-oxidation of (9Z,11E,13S)-13-hydroxy-octadeca-9,11-dienoic acid by the cotyledonary glyoxysomes Planta 220, 919-930, (2005) DOI: 10.1007/s00425-004-1408-1
During the early stages of germination, a lipid-body lipoxygenase is expressed in the cotyledons of sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.). In order to obtain evidence for the in vivo activity of this enzyme during germination, we analyzed the lipoxygenase-dependent metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids esterified in the storage lipids. For this purpose, lipid bodies were isolated from etiolated sunflower cotyledons at different stages of germination, and the storage triacylglycerols were analyzed for oxygenated derivatives. During the time course of germination the amount of oxygenated storage lipids was strongly augmented, and we detected triacylglycerols containing one, two or three residues of (9Z,11E,13S)-13-hydro(pero)xy-octadeca-9,11-dienoic acid. Glyoxysomes from etiolated sunflower cotyledons converted (9Z,11E,13S)-13-hydroxy-octadeca-9,11-dienoic acid to (9Z,11E)-13-oxo-octadeca-9,11-dienoic acid via an NADH-dependent dehydrogenase reaction. Both oxygenated fatty acid derivatives were activated to the corresponding CoA esters and subsequently metabolized to compounds of shorter chain length. Cofactor requirement and formation of acetyl-CoA indicate degradation via β-oxidation. However, β-oxidation only proceeded for two consecutive cycles, leading to accumulation of a medium-chain metabolite carrying an oxo group at C-9, equivalent to C-13 of the parent (9Z,11E,13S)-13-hydroxy-octadeca-9,11-dienoic acid. Short-chain β-oxidation intermediates were not detected during incubation. Similar results were obtained when 13-hydroxy octadecanoic acid was used as β-oxidation substrate. On the other hand, the degradation of (9Z,11E)-octadeca-9,11-dienoic acid was accompanied by the appearance of short-chain β-oxidation intermediates in the reaction mixture. The results suggest that the hydroxyl/oxo group at C-13 of lipoxygenase-derived fatty acids forms a barrier to continuous β-oxidation by glyoxysomes.
Fortes, A. M.; Miersch, O.; Lange, P. R.; Malhó, R.; Testillano, P. S.; Risueño, M. d. C.; Wasternack, C.; Pais, M. S.; Expression of Allene Oxide Cyclase and Accumulation of Jasmonates during Organogenic Nodule Formation from Hop (Humulus lupulus var. Nugget) Internodes Plant Cell Physiol. 46, 1713-1723, (2005) DOI: 10.1093/pcp/pci187
A crucial step in the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid (JA) is the formation of its stereoisomeric precursor, cis-(+)-12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA), which is catalyzed by allene oxide cyclase (AOC, EC 126.96.36.199). A cDNA of AOC was isolated from Humulus lupulus var. Nugget. The ORF of 765 bp encodes a 255 amino acid protein, which carries a putative chloroplast targeting sequence. The recombinant protein without its putative chloroplast target sequence showed significant AOC activity. Previously we demonstrated that wounding induces organogenic nodule formation in hop. Here we show that the AOC transcript level increases in response to wounding of internodes, peaking between 2 and 4 h after wounding. In addition, Western blot analysis showed elevated levels of AOC peaking 24 h after internode inoculation. The AOC increase was accompanied by increased JA levels 24 h after wounding, whereas OPDA had already reached its highest level after 12 h. AOC is mostly present in the vascular bundles of inoculated internodes. During prenodule and nodule formation, AOC levels were still high. JA and OPDA levels decreased down to 10 and 118 pmol (g FW)–1, respectively, during nodule formation, but increased during plantlet regeneration. Double immunolocalization analysis of AOC and Rubisco in connection with lugol staining showed that AOC is present in amyloplasts of prenodular cells and in the chloroplasts of vacuolated nodular cells, whereas meristematic cells accumulated little AOC. These data suggest a role of AOC and jasmonates in organogenic nodule formation and plantlet regeneration from these nodules.
Abel, S.; Savchenko, T.; Levy, M.; Genome-wide comparative analysis of the IQD gene families in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa BMC Evol. Biol. 5, 72, (2005) DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-5-72
BackgroundCalcium signaling plays a prominent role in plants for coordinating a wide range of developmental processes and responses to environmental cues. Stimulus-specific generation of intracellular calcium transients, decoding of calcium signatures, and transformation of the signal into cellular responses are integral modules of the transduction process. Several hundred proteins with functions in calcium signaling circuits have been identified, and the number of downstream targets of calcium sensors is expected to increase. We previously identified a novel, calmodulin-binding nuclear protein, IQD1, which stimulates glucosinolate accumulation and plant defense in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we present a comparative genome-wide analysis of a new class of putative calmodulin target proteins in Arabidopsis and rice.ResultsWe identified and analyzed 33 and 29 IQD1-like genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, respectively. The encoded IQD proteins contain a plant-specific domain of 67 conserved amino acid residues, referred to as the IQ67 domain, which is characterized by a unique and repetitive arrangement of three different calmodulin recruitment motifs, known as the IQ, 1-5-10, and 1-8-14 motifs. We demonstrated calmodulin binding for IQD20, the smallest IQD protein in Arabidopsis, which consists of a C-terminal IQ67 domain and a short N-terminal extension. A striking feature of IQD proteins is the high isoelectric point (~10.3) and frequency of serine residues (~11%). We compared the Arabidopsis and rice IQD gene families in terms of gene structure, chromosome location, predicted protein properties and motifs, phylogenetic relationships, and evolutionary history. The existence of an IQD-like gene in bryophytes suggests that IQD proteins are an ancient family of calmodulin-binding proteins and arose during the early evolution of land plants.ConclusionComparative phylogenetic analyses indicate that the major IQD gene lineages originated before the monocot-eudicot divergence. The extant IQD loci in Arabidopsis primarily resulted from segmental duplication and reflect preferential retention of paralogous genes, which is characteristic for proteins with regulatory functions. Interaction of IQD1 and IQD20 with calmodulin and the presence of predicted calmodulin binding sites in all IQD family members suggest that IQD proteins are a new class of calmodulin targets. The basic isoelectric point of IQD proteins and their frequently predicted nuclear localization suggest that IQD proteins link calcium signaling pathways to the regulation of gene expression. Our comparative genomics analysis of IQD genes and encoded proteins in two model plant species provides the first step towards the functional dissection of this emerging family of putative calmodulin targets.
Sharma, V. K.; Monostori, T.; Hause, B.; Maucher, H.; Göbel, C.; Hornung, E.; Hänsch, R.; Bittner, F.; Wasternack, C.; Feussner, I.; Mendel, R. R.; Schulze, J.; Genetic transformation of barley to modify expression of a 13-lipoxygenase Acta Biol. Szeged. 49, 33-34, (2005)
Immature scutella of barley were transformed with cDNA coding for a 13-lipoxygenase of barley (LOX-100) via particle bombardment. Regenerated plants were tested by PAT-assay, Western-analysis and PCR-screening. Immunocytochemical assay of T0 plants showed expression of the LOX cDNA both in the chloroplasts and in the cytosol, depending on the presence of the chloroplast signal peptide sequences in the cDNA. A few transgenic plants containing higher amounts of LOX-derived products have been found. These are the candidates for further analysis concerning pathogen resistance.
Schneider, K.; Kienow, L.; Schmelzer, E.; Colby, T.; Bartsch, M.; Miersch, O.; Wasternack, C.; Kombrink, E.; Stuible, H.-P.; A New Type of Peroxisomal Acyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase from Arabidopsis thaliana Has the Catalytic Capacity to Activate Biosynthetic Precursors of Jasmonic Acid J. Biol. Chem. 280, 13962-13972, (2005) DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M413578200
Arabidopsis thaliana contains a large number of genes that encode carboxylic acid-activating enzymes, including nine long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetases, four 4-coumarate:CoA ligases (4CL), and 25 4CL-like proteins of unknown biochemical function. Because of their high structural and sequence similarity with bona fide 4CLs and their highly hydrophobic putative substrate-binding pockets, the 4CL-like proteins At4g05160 and At5g63380 were selected for detailed analysis. Following heterologous expression, the purified proteins were subjected to a large scale screen to identify their preferred in vitro substrates. This study uncovered a significant activity of At4g05160 with medium-chain fatty acids, medium-chain fatty acids carrying a phenyl substitution, long-chain fatty acids, as well as the jasmonic acid precursors 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid and 3-oxo-2-(2′-pentenyl)-cyclopentane-1-hexanoic acid. The closest homolog of At4g05160, namely At5g63380, showed high activity with long-chain fatty acids and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, the latter representing the most efficiently converted substrate. By using fluorescent-tagged variants, we demonstrated that both 4CL-like proteins are targeted to leaf peroxisomes. Collectively, these data demonstrate that At4g05160 and At5g63380 have the capacity to contribute to jasmonic acid biosynthesis by initiating the β-oxidative chain shortening of its precursors.
Rudus, I.; Kepczynska, E.; Kepczynski, J.; Wasternack, C.; Miersch, O.; Changes in jasmonates and 12-oxophytodienoic acid contents of Medicago sativa L. during somatic embryogenesis Acta Physiol. Plant. 27, 497-504, (2005) DOI: 10.1007/s11738-005-0055-x
Jasmonic acid (JA), its methyl ester (MeJA) and the biosynthetic precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) were detected quantitatively during somatic embryogenesis of Medicago sativa L. Using GC-MS analysis, these compounds were found in initial explants, in calli and in somatic embryos in the nanogram range per gram of fresh weight. In distinct stages of somatic embryogenesis, JA and 12-OPDA accumulated preferentially in cotyledonary embryos. Initial explants exhibited about five-fold higher JA content than OPDA content, whereas in other stages OPDA accumulated predominantly. These data suggest that also in embryogenic tissues OPDA and JA may have individual signalling properties.