Abel, S.; Nürnberger, T.; Ahnert, V.; Krauss, G.J.; Glund, K. Induction of an extracellular cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase as an accessory ribonucleolytic activity during phosphate starvation of cultured tomato cells Plant Physiology 122, 543 - 532, (2000)
Colon-Carmona, A.; Chen, D.L.; Yeh, K.C.; Abel, S. Aux/IAA proteins are phosphorylated by phytochrome in vitro Plant Physiology 124, 1728-1738, (2000)
Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes encode short-lived transcription factors that are induced as a primary response to the plant growth hormone IAA or auxin. Gain-of-function mutations in Arabidopsis genes,SHY2/IAA3, AXR3/IAA17, andAXR2/IAA7 cause pleiotropic phenotypes consistent with enhanced auxin responses, possibly by increasing Aux/IAA protein stability. Semidominant mutations shy2-1D,shy2-2, axr3-1, and axr2-1induce ectopic light responses in dark-grown seedlings. Because genetic studies suggest that the shy2-1D andshy2-2 mutations bypass phytochrome requirement for certain aspects of photomorphogenesis, we tested whether SHY2/IAA3 and related Aux/IAA proteins interact directly with phytochrome and whether they are substrates for its protein kinase activity. Here we show that recombinant Aux/IAA proteins from Arabidopsis and pea (Pisum sativum) interact in vitro with recombinant phytochrome A from oat (Avena sativa). We further show that recombinant SHY2/IAA3, AXR3/IAA17, IAA1, IAA9, and Ps-IAA4 are phosphorylated by recombinant oat phytochrome A in vitro. Deletion analysis of Ps-IAA4 indicates that phytochrome A phosphorylation occurs on the N-terminal half of the protein. Metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation studies with affinity-purified antibodies to IAA3 demonstrate increased in vivo steady-state levels of mutant IAA3 in shy2-2 plants and phosphorylation of the SHY2-2 protein in vivo. Phytochrome-dependent phosphorylation of Aux/IAA proteins is proposed to provide one molecular mechanism for integrating auxin and light signaling in plant development.