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Publikationen - Molekulare Signalverarbeitung

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Publikation

Stenzel, I.; Hause, B.; Miersch, O.; Kurz, T.; Maucher, H.; Weichert, H.; Ziegler, J.; Feussner, I.; Wasternack, C.; Jasmonate biosynthesis and the allene oxide cyclase family of Arabidopsis thaliana Plant Mol. Biol. 51, 895-911, (2003) DOI: 10.1023/A:1023049319723

In biosynthesis of octadecanoids and jasmonate (JA), the naturally occurring enantiomer is established in a step catalysed by the gene cloned recently from tomato as a single-copy gene (Ziegler et al., 2000). Based on sequence homology, four full-length cDNAs were isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia coding for proteins with AOC activity. The expression of AOCgenes was transiently and differentially up-regulated upon wounding both locally and systemically and was induced by JA treatment. In contrast, AOC protein appeared at constitutively high basal levels and was slightly increased by the treatments. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed abundant occurrence of AOC protein as well as of the preceding enzymes in octadecanoid biosynthesis, lipoxygenase (LOX) and allene oxide synthase (AOS), in fully developed tissues, but much less so in 7-day old leaf tissues. Metabolic profiling data of free and esterified polyunsaturated fatty acids and lipid peroxidation products including JA and octadecanoids in wild-type leaves and the jasmonate-deficient mutant OPDA reductase 3 (opr3) revealed preferential activity of the AOS branch within the LOX pathway. 13-LOX products occurred predominantly as esterified derivatives, and all 13-hydroperoxy derivatives were below the detection limits. There was a constitutive high level of free 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) in untreated wild-type and opr3 leaves, but an undetectable expression of AOC. Upon wounding opr3 leaves exhibited only low expression of AOC, wounded wild-type leaves, however, accumulated JA and AOC mRNA. These and further data suggest regulation of JA biosynthesis by OPDA compartmentalization and a positive feedback by JA during leaf development.
Publikation

Durgbanshi, A.; Arbona, V.; Pozo, O.; Miersch, O.; Sancho, J. V.; Gómez-Cadenas, A.; Simultaneous Determination of Multiple Phytohormones in Plant Extracts by Liquid Chromatography−Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry J. Agr. Food Chem. 53, 8437-8442, (2005) DOI: 10.1021/jf050884b

A rapid multiresidue method to quantify three different classes of plant hormones has been developed. The reduced concentrations of these metabolites in real samples with complex matrixes require sensitive techniques for their quantification in small amounts of plant tissue. The method described combines high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Deuterium-labeled standards were added prior to sample extraction to achieve an accurate quantification of abscisic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, and jasmonic acid in a single run. A simple method of extraction and purification involving only centrifugation, a partition against diethyl ether, and filtration was developed and the analytical method validated in four different plant tissues, citrus leaves, papaya roots, barley seedlings, and barley immature embryos. This method represents a clear advantage because it extensively reduces sample preparation and total time for routine analysis of phytohormones in real plant samples.
Publikation

Miersch, O.; Neumerkel, J.; Dippe, M.; Stenzel, I.; Wasternack, C.; Hydroxylated jasmonates are commonly occurring metabolites of jasmonic acid and contribute to a partial switch-off in jasmonate signaling New Phytol. 177, 114-127, (2008) DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2007.02252.x

In potato 12‐hydroxyjasmonic acid (12‐OH‐JA) is a tuber‐inducing compound. Here, it is demonstrated that 12‐OH‐JA, as well as its sulfated and glucosylated derivatives, are constituents of various organs of many plant species. All accumulate differentially and usually to much higher concentrations than jasmonic acid (JA).In wounded tomato leaves, 12‐OH‐JA and its sulfated, as well as glucosylated, derivative accumulate after JA, and their diminished accumulation in wounded leaves of the JA‐deficient mutants spr2 and acx1 and also a JA‐deficient 35S::AOCantisense line suggest their JA‐dependent formation.To elucidate how signaling properties of JA/JAME (jasmonic acid methyl ester) are affected by hydroxylation and sulfation, germination and root growth were recorded in the presence of the different jasmonates, indicating that 12‐OH‐JA and 12‐hydroxyjasmonic acid sulfate (12‐HSO4‐JA) were not bioactive. Expression analyses for 29 genes showed that expression of wound‐inducible genes such as those coding for PROTEINASE INHIBITOR2, POLYPHENOL OXIDASE, THREONINE DEAMINASE or ARGINASE was induced by JAME and less induced or even down‐regulated by 12‐OH‐JA and 12‐HSO4‐JA. Almost all genes coding for enzymes in JA biosynthesis were up‐regulated by JAME but down‐regulated by 12‐OH‐JA and 12‐HSO4‐JA.The data suggest that wound‐induced metabolic conversion of JA/JAME into 12‐OH‐JA alters expression pattern of genes including a switch off in JA signaling for a subset of genes.
Publikation

Clarke, S. M.; Cristescu, S. M.; Miersch, O.; Harren, F. J. M.; Wasternack, C.; Mur, L. A. J.; Jasmonates act with salicylic acid to confer basal thermotolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana New Phytol. 182, 175-187, (2009) DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02735.x

The cpr5‐1 Arabidopsis thaliana mutant exhibits constitutive activation of salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) signalling pathways and displays enhanced tolerance of heat stress (HS).cpr5‐1 crossed with jar1‐1 (a JA‐amino acid synthetase) was compromised in basal thermotolerance, as were the mutants opr3 (mutated in OPDA reductase3) and coi1‐1 (affected in an E3 ubiquitin ligase F‐box; a key JA‐signalling component). In addition, heating wild‐type Arabidopsis led to the accumulation of a range of jasmonates: JA, 12‐oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) and a JA‐isoleucine (JA‐Ile) conjugate. Exogenous application of methyl jasmonate protected wild‐type Arabidopsis from HS.Ethylene was rapidly produced during HS, with levels being modulated by both JA and SA. By contrast, the ethylene mutant ein2‐1 conferred greater thermotolerance.These data suggest that JA acts with SA, conferring basal thermotolerance while ET may act to promote cell death.
Publikation

Farmer, E. E.; Gasperini, D.; Acosta, I. F.; The squeeze cell hypothesis for the activation of jasmonate synthesis in response to wounding New Phytol. 204, 282-288, (2014) DOI: 10.1111/nph.12897

Jasmonates are lipid mediators that control defence gene expression in response to wounding and other environmental stresses. These small molecules can accumulate at distances up to several cm from sites of damage and this is likely to involve cell‐to‐cell jasmonate transport. Also, and independently of jasmonate synthesis, transport and perception, different long‐distance wound signals that stimulate distal jasmonate synthesis are propagated at apparent speeds of several cm min–1 to tissues distal to wounds in a mechanism that involves clade 3 GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR‐LIKE (GLR) genes. A search for jasmonate synthesis enzymes that might decode these signals revealed LOX6, a lipoxygenase that is necessary for much of the rapid accumulation of jasmonic acid at sites distal to wounds. Intriguingly, the LOX6 promoter is expressed in a distinct niche of cells that are adjacent to mature xylem vessels, a location that would make these contact cells sensitive to the release of xylem water column tension upon wounding. We propose a model in which rapid axial changes in xylem hydrostatic pressure caused by wounding travel through the vasculature and lead to slower, radially dispersed pressure changes that act in a clade 3 GLR‐dependent mechanism to promote distal jasmonate synthesis.
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