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Publikationen - Molekulare Signalverarbeitung

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Acosta, I. F.; Gasperini, D.; Chételat, A.; Stolz, S.; Santuari, L.; Farmer, E. E.; Role of NINJA in root jasmonate signaling Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110, 15473-15478, (2013) DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1307910110

Wound responses in plants have to be coordinated between organs so that locally reduced growth in a wounded tissue is balanced by appropriate growth elsewhere in the body. We used a JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN 10 (JAZ10) reporter to screen for mutants affected in the organ-specific activation of jasmonate (JA) signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Wounding one cotyledon activated the reporter in both aerial and root tissues, and this was either disrupted or restricted to certain organs in mutant alleles of core components of the JA pathway including COI1, OPR3, and JAR1. In contrast, three other mutants showed constitutive activation of the reporter in the roots and hypocotyls of unwounded seedlings. All three lines harbored mutations in Novel Interactor of JAZ (NINJA), which encodes part of a repressor complex that negatively regulates JA signaling. These ninja mutants displayed shorter roots mimicking JA-mediated growth inhibition, and this was due to reduced cell elongation. Remarkably, this phenotype and the constitutive JAZ10 expression were still observed in backgrounds lacking the ability to synthesize JA or the key transcriptional activator MYC2. Therefore, JA-like responses can be recapitulated in specific tissues without changing a plant’s ability to make or perceive JA, and MYC2 either has no role or is not the only derepressed transcription factor in ninja mutants. Our results show that the role of NINJA in the root is to repress JA signaling and allow normal cell elongation. Furthermore, the regulation of the JA pathway differs between roots and aerial tissues at all levels, from JA biosynthesis to transcriptional activation.

Eschen-Lippold, L.; Rothe, G.; Stumpe, M.; Göbel, C.; Feussner, I.; Rosahl, S.; Reduction of divinyl ether-containing polyunsaturated fatty acids in transgenic potato plants Phytochemistry 68, 797-801, (2007) DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2006.12.010

Oxygenated polyunsaturated fatty acids synthesized via the lipoxygenase pathway play a role in plant responses to pathogen attack. In solanaceous plants, the preferential stimulation of the 9-lipoxygenase pathway in response to pathogen infection leads to the formation of the divinyl ether-containing polyunsaturated fatty acids colneleic and colnelenic acid, as well as hydroxy and trihydroxy polyunsaturated fatty acids. To functionally assess the role of divinyl ethers, transgenic potato plants were generated which express an RNA interference construct directed against the pathogen-inducible 9-divinyl ether synthase. Efficient reduction of 9-divinyl ether synthase transcript accumulation correlated with reduced levels of colneleic and colnelenic acid. However, in response to infection with virulent Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease, no significant differences in pathogen biomass could be detected suggesting that the levels of antimicrobial divinyl ethers are not critical for defense against Phytophthora infestans in a compatible interaction.

Stumpe, M.; Carsjens, J.-G.; Stenzel, I.; Göbel, C.; Lang, I.; Pawlowski, K.; Hause, B.; Feussner, I.; Lipid metabolism in arbuscular mycorrhizal roots of Medicago truncatula Phytochemistry 66, 781-791, (2005) DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2005.01.020

The peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, common to all eukaryotes, is mostly catalyzed by members of the lipoxygenase enzyme family of non-heme iron containing dioxygenases. Lipoxygenase products can be metabolized further in the oxylipin pathway by several groups of CYP74 enzymes. One prominent oxylipin is jasmonic acid (JA), a product of the 13-allene oxide synthase branch of the pathway and known as signaling substance that plays a role in vegetative and propagative plant development as well as in plant responses to wounding and pathogen attack. In barley roots, JA level increases upon colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Apart from this first result regarding JA, no information is available on the relevance of lipidperoxide metabolism in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Thus we analyzed fatty acid and lipidperoxide patterns in roots of Medicago truncatula during mycorrhizal colonization. Levels of fungus-specific fatty acids as well as palmitic acid (16:0) and oleic acid (18:1 n − 9) were increased in mycorrhizal roots. Thus the degree of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of roots can be estimated via analysis of fungal specific esterified fatty acids. Otherwise, no significant changes were found in the profiles of esterified and free fatty acids. The 9- and 13-LOX products of linoleic and α-linolenic acid were present in all root samples, but did not show significant differences between mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal roots, except JA which showed elevated levels in mycorrhizal roots. In both types of roots levels of 13-LOX products were higher than those of 9-LOX products. In addition, three cDNAs encoding CYP74 enzymes, two 9/13-hydroperoxide lyases and a 13-allene oxide synthase, were isolated and characterized. The transcript accumulation of these three genes, however, was not increased in mycorrhizal roots of M. truncatula.
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