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Publikationen - Molekulare Signalverarbeitung

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Leon-Reyes, A.; Van der Does, D.; De Lange, E. S.; Delker, C.; Wasternack, C.; Van Wees, S. C. M.; Ritsema, T.; Pieterse, C. M. J.; Salicylate-mediated suppression of jasmonate-responsive gene expression in Arabidopsis is targeted downstream of the jasmonate biosynthesis pathway Planta 232, 1423-1432, (2010) DOI: 10.1007/s00425-010-1265-z

Jasmonates (JAs) and salicylic acid (SA) are plant hormones that play pivotal roles in the regulation of induced defenses against microbial pathogens and insect herbivores. Their signaling pathways cross-communicate providing the plant with a regulatory potential to finely tune its defense response to the attacker(s) encountered. In Arabidopsis thaliana, SA strongly antagonizes the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway, resulting in the downregulation of a large set of JA-responsive genes, including the marker genes PDF1.2 and VSP2. Induction of JA-responsive marker gene expression by different JA derivatives was equally sensitive to SA-mediated suppression. Activation of genes encoding key enzymes in the JA biosynthesis pathway, such as LOX2, AOS, AOC2, and OPR3 was also repressed by SA, suggesting that the JA biosynthesis pathway may be a target for SA-mediated antagonism. To test this, we made use of the mutant aos/dde2, which is completely blocked in its ability to produce JAs because of a mutation in the ALLENE OXIDE SYNTHASE gene. Mutant aos/dde2 plants did not express the JA-responsive marker genes PDF1.2 or VSP2 in response to infection with the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola or the herbivorous insect Pieris rapae. Bypassing JA biosynthesis by exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) rescued this JA-responsive phenotype in aos/dde2. Application of SA suppressed MeJA-induced PDF1.2 expression to the same level in the aos/dde2 mutant as in wild-type Col-0 plants, indicating that SA-mediated suppression of JA-responsive gene expression is targeted at a position downstream of the JA biosynthesis pathway.

Delker, C.; Pöschl, Y.; Raschke, A.; Ullrich, K.; Ettingshausen, S.; Hauptmann, V.; Grosse, I.; Quint, M.; Natural Variation of Transcriptional Auxin Response Networks in Arabidopsis thaliana Plant Cell 22, 2184-2200, (2010) DOI: 10.1105/tpc.110.073957

Natural variation has been observed for various traits in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we investigated natural variation in the context of physiological and transcriptional responses to the phytohormone auxin, a key regulator of plant development. A survey of the general extent of natural variation to auxin stimuli revealed significant physiological variation among 20 genetically diverse natural accessions. Moreover, we observed dramatic variation on the global transcriptome level after induction of auxin responses in seven accessions. Although we detect isolated cases of major-effect polymorphisms, sequencing of signaling genes revealed sequence conservation, making selective pressures that favor functionally different protein variants among accessions unlikely. However, coexpression analyses of a priori defined auxin signaling networks identified variations in the transcriptional equilibrium of signaling components. In agreement with this, cluster analyses of genome-wide expression profiles followed by analyses of a posteriori defined gene networks revealed accession-specific auxin responses. We hypothesize that quantitative distortions in the ratios of interacting signaling components contribute to the detected transcriptional variation, resulting in physiological variation of auxin responses among accessions.

Delker, C.; Raschke, A.; Quint, M.; Auxin dynamics: the dazzling complexity of a small molecule’s message Planta 227, 929-941, (2008) DOI: 10.1007/s00425-008-0710-8

The phytohormone auxin is a potent regulator of plant development. Since its discovery in the beginning of the twentieth century many aspects of auxin biology have been extensively studied, ranging from biosynthesis and metabolism to the elucidation of molecular components of downstream signaling. With the identification of the F-box protein TIR1 as an auxin receptor a major breakthrough in understanding auxin signaling has been achieved and recent modeling approaches have shed light on the putative mechanisms underlying the establishment of auxin gradients and maxima essential for many auxin-regulated processes. Here, we review these and other recent advances in unraveling the entanglement of biosynthesis, polar transport and cellular signaling events that allow small auxinic molecules to facilitate their complex regulatory action.

Brüx, A.; Liu, T.-Y.; Krebs, M.; Stierhof, Y.-D.; Lohmann, J. U.; Miersch, O.; Wasternack, C.; Schumacher, K.; Reduced V-ATPase Activity in the trans-Golgi Network Causes Oxylipin-Dependent Hypocotyl Growth Inhibition in Arabidopsis Plant Cell 20, 1088-1100, (2008) DOI: 10.1105/tpc.108.058362

Regulated cell expansion allows plants to adapt their morphogenesis to prevailing environmental conditions. Cell expansion is driven by turgor pressure created by osmotic water uptake and is restricted by the extensibility of the cell wall, which in turn is regulated by the synthesis, incorporation, and cross-linking of new cell wall components. The vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) could provide a way to coordinately regulate turgor pressure and cell wall synthesis, as it energizes the secondary active transport of solutes across the tonoplast and also has an important function in the trans-Golgi network (TGN), which affects synthesis and trafficking of cell wall components. We have previously shown that det3, a mutant with reduced V-ATPase activity, has a severe defect in cell expansion. However, it was not clear if this is caused by a defect in turgor pressure or in cell wall synthesis. Here, we show that inhibition of the tonoplast-localized V-ATPase subunit isoform VHA-a3 does not impair cell expansion. By contrast, inhibition of the TGN-localized isoform VHA-a1 is sufficient to restrict cell expansion. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the reduced hypocotyl cell expansion in det3 is conditional and due to active, hormone-mediated growth inhibition caused by a cell wall defect.

Raffaele, S.; Vailleau, F.; Léger, A.; Joubès, J.; Miersch, O.; Huard, C.; Blée, E.; Mongrand, S.; Domergue, F.; Roby, D.; A MYB Transcription Factor Regulates Very-Long-Chain Fatty Acid Biosynthesis for Activation of the Hypersensitive Cell Death Response in Arabidopsis Plant Cell 20, 752-767, (2008) DOI: 10.1105/tpc.107.054858

Plant immune responses to pathogen attack include the hypersensitive response (HR), a form of programmed cell death occurring at invasion sites. We previously reported on Arabidopsis thaliana MYB30, a transcription factor that acts as a positive regulator of a cell death pathway conditioning the HR. Here, we show by microarray analyses of Arabidopsis plants misexpressing MYB30 that the genes encoding the four enzymes forming the acyl-coA elongase complex are putative MYB30 targets. The acyl-coA elongase complex synthesizes very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), and the accumulation of extracellular VLCFA-derived metabolites (leaf epidermal wax components) was affected in MYB30 knockout mutant and overexpressing lines. In the same lines, a lipid extraction procedure allowing high recovery of sphingolipids revealed changes in VLCFA contents that were amplified in response to inoculation. Finally, the exacerbated HR phenotype of MYB30-overexpressing lines was altered by the loss of function of the acyl-ACP thioesterase FATB, which causes severe defects in the supply of fatty acids for VLCFA biosynthesis. Based on these findings, we propose a model in which MYB30 modulates HR via VLCFAs by themselves, or VLCFA derivatives, as cell death messengers in plants.

Meixner, C.; Ludwig-Müller, J.; Miersch, O.; Gresshoff, P.; Staehelin, C.; Vierheilig, H.; Lack of mycorrhizal autoregulation and phytohormonal changes in the supernodulating soybean mutant nts1007 Planta 222, 709-715, (2005) DOI: 10.1007/s00425-005-0003-4

Autoregulatory mechanisms have been reported in the rhizobial and the mycorrhizal symbiosis. Autoregulation means that already existing nodules or an existing root colonization by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus systemically suppress subsequent nodule formation/root colonization in other parts of the root system. Mutants of some legumes lost their ability to autoregulate the nodule number and thus display a supernodulating phenotype. On studying the effect of pre-inoculation of one side of a split-root system with an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus on subsequent mycorrhization in the second side of the split-root system of a wild-type soybean (Glycine max L.) cv. Bragg and its supernodulating mutant nts1007, we observed a clear suppressional effect in the wild-type, whereas further root colonization in the split-root system of the mutant nts1007 was not suppressed. These data strongly indicate that the mechanisms involved in supernodulation also affect mycorrhization and support the hypothesis that the autoregulation in the rhizobial and the mycorrhizal symbiosis is controlled in a similar manner. The accumulation patterns of the plant hormones IAA, ABA and Jasmonic acid (JA) in non-inoculated control plants and split-root systems of inoculated plants with one mycorrhizal side of the split-root system and one non-mycorrhizal side, indicate an involvement of IAA in the autoregulation of mycorrhization. Mycorrhizal colonization of soybeans also resulted in a strong induction of ABA and JA levels, but on the basis of our data the role of these two phytohormones in mycorrhizal autoregulation is questionable.

Nibbe, M.; Hilpert, B.; Wasternack, C.; Miersch, O.; Apel, K.; Cell death and salicylate- and jasmonate-dependent stress responses in Arabidopsis are controlled by single cet genes Planta 216, 120-128, (2002) DOI: 10.1007/s00425-002-0907-1

The jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent regulation of the Thi2.1 gene had previously been exploited for setting up a genetic screen for the isolation of signal transduction mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. that constitutively express the thionin gene. Several cet mutants had been isolated which showed a constitutive expression of the thionin gene. These cet mutants, except for one, also showed spontaneous leaf cell necrosis and were up-regulated in the expression of the PR1 gene, reactions often associated with the systemic acquired resistance (SAR) pathway. Four of these cet mutants, cet1, cet2, cet3 and cet4.1 were crossed with the fad triple and coi1 mutants that are blocked at two steps within the JA-dependent signaling pathway, and with transgenic NahG plants that are deficient in salicylic acid (SA) and are unable to activate SAR. Analysis of the various double-mutant lines revealed that the four cet genes act within a signaling cascade at or prior to branch points from which not only JA-dependent signals but also SA-dependent signaling and cell death pathways diverge.
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