Halim, V.A.; Altmann, S.; Ellinger, D.; Eschen-Lippold, L.; Miersch, O.; Scheel, D.; Rosahl, S. PAMP-induced defense responses in potato require both salicylic acid and jasmonic acid Plant Journal 57, 230 - 242, (2009) DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2008.03688.x
To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-induced defense responses in potato (Solanum tuberosum), the role of the signaling compounds salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) was analyzed. Pep-13, a PAMP from Phytophthora, induces the accumulation of SA, JA and hydrogen peroxide, as well as the activation of defense genes and hypersensitive-like cell death. We have previously shown that SA is required for Pep-13-induced defense responses. To assess the importance of JA, RNA interference constructs targeted at the JA biosynthetic genes, allene oxide cyclase and 12- oxophytodienoic acid reductase, were expressed in transgenic potato plants. In addition, expression of the F-box protein COI1 was reduced by RNA interference. Plants expressing the RNA interference constructs failed to accumulate the respective transcripts in response to wounding or Pep-13 treatment, neither did they contain significant amounts of JA after elicitation. In response to infiltration of Pep-13, the transgenic plants exhibited a highly reduced accumulation of reactive oxygen species as well as reduced hypersensitive cell death. The ability of the JA-deficient plants to accumulate SA suggests that SA accumulation is independent or upstream of JA accumulation. These data show that PAMP responses in potato require both SA and JA and that, in contrast to Arabidopsis, these compounds act in the same signal transduction pathway. Despite their inability to fully respond to PAMP treatment, the transgenic RNA interference plants are not altered in their basal defense against Phytophthora infestans.
Ticconi, C.A.; Delatorre, C.A.; Lahner, B.; Salt, D.E.; Abel, S. Arabidopsis <span style="font-style: italic;">pdr2</span> reveals a phosphate-sensitive checkpoint in root development Plant Journal 37, 801 - 814, (2004)
Abel, S.; Theologis, A. Transient transformation of Arabidopsis leaf protoplasts: a versatile experimental system to study gene expression Plant Journal 5, 421-427, (1994)
An improved protocol is reported to isolate and transiently transform mesophyll protoplasts of Arabidopsis thaliana. Transfected leaf protoplasts support high levels of expression of the bacterial reporter gene coding for β-glucuronidase (GUS), under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. Transient expression of GUS activity was monitored spectrophotometrically and reached a maximum between 18 and 48 h after polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated DNA uptake. Histochemical staining for GUS activity revealed reproducible transformation frequencies between 40 and 60%, based on the number of protoplasts survived. To demonstrate the applicability of the transient expression system, the subcellular localization of GUS proteins tagged with different nuclear polypeptides was studied in transfected mesophyll protoplasts, revealing nuclear compartmentalization of the chimeric GUS enzymes. Furthermore, Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts support auxin-mediated induction of chloramphenicol acetyl-transferase (CAT) activity when transfected with a transcriptional fusion between the CAT reporter gene and the early auxin-inducible PS-IAA4/5 promoter. Hence, the method allows in vivo analysis of promoter activity and subcellular localization of fusion proteins in a homologous transformation system.