Ziegler, J.; Facchini, P.J.; Geißler, R.; Schmidt, J.; Ammer, C.; Kramell, R.; Voigtländer, S.; Gesell, A.; Pienkny, S.; Brandt, W. Evolution of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy. Phytochemistry 70, 1696 - 1707, (2009) DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2009.07.006
Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are a group of nitrogen-containing plant secondary metabolites comprised of an estimated 2500 identified structures. In BIA metabolism, (S)-reticuline is a key branch-point intermediate that can be directed into several alkaloid subtypes with different structural skeleton configurations. The morphinan alkaloids are one subclass of BIAs produced in only a few plant species, most notably and abundantly in the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). Comparative transcriptome analysis of opium poppy and several other Papaver species that do not accumulate morphinan alkaloids showed that known genes encoding BIA biosynthetic enzymes are expressed at higher levels in P. somniferum. Three unknown cDNAs that are co-ordinately expressed with several BIA biosynthetic genes were identified as enzymes in the pathway. One of these enzymes, salutaridine reductase (SalR), which is specific for the production of morphinan alkaloids, was isolated and heterologously overexpressed in its active form not only from P. somniferum, but also from Papaver species that do not produce morphinan alkaloids.SalR is a member of a class of short chain dehydrogenase/reductases (SDRs) that are active as monomers and possess an extended amino acid sequence compared with classical SDRs. Homology modelling and substrate docking revealed the substrate binding site for SalR. The amino acids residues conferring salutaridine binding were compared to several members of the SDR family from different plant species, which non-specifically reduce ( )-menthone to (+)-neomenthol. Previously, it was shown that some of these proteins are involved in plant defence. The recruitment of specific monomeric SDRs from monomeric SDRs involved in plant defence is discussed.
Halim, V.A.; Altmann, S.; Ellinger, D.; Eschen-Lippold, L.; Miersch, O.; Scheel, D.; Rosahl, S. PAMP-induced defense responses in potato require both salicylic acid and jasmonic acid Plant Journal 57, 230 - 242, (2009) DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2008.03688.x
To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-induced defense responses in potato (Solanum tuberosum), the role of the signaling compounds salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) was analyzed. Pep-13, a PAMP from Phytophthora, induces the accumulation of SA, JA and hydrogen peroxide, as well as the activation of defense genes and hypersensitive-like cell death. We have previously shown that SA is required for Pep-13-induced defense responses. To assess the importance of JA, RNA interference constructs targeted at the JA biosynthetic genes, allene oxide cyclase and 12- oxophytodienoic acid reductase, were expressed in transgenic potato plants. In addition, expression of the F-box protein COI1 was reduced by RNA interference. Plants expressing the RNA interference constructs failed to accumulate the respective transcripts in response to wounding or Pep-13 treatment, neither did they contain significant amounts of JA after elicitation. In response to infiltration of Pep-13, the transgenic plants exhibited a highly reduced accumulation of reactive oxygen species as well as reduced hypersensitive cell death. The ability of the JA-deficient plants to accumulate SA suggests that SA accumulation is independent or upstream of JA accumulation. These data show that PAMP responses in potato require both SA and JA and that, in contrast to Arabidopsis, these compounds act in the same signal transduction pathway. Despite their inability to fully respond to PAMP treatment, the transgenic RNA interference plants are not altered in their basal defense against Phytophthora infestans.
Wong, L.M.; Abel, S.; Shen, N.; de la Foata, M.; Mal, Y.; Theologis, A. Differential activation of the primary auxin response genes, PS-IAA4/5 and PS-IAA6, during early plant development. Plant Journal 9, 587-599, (1996)
The plant growth hormone auxin typified by indoleacetic acid (IAA) transcriptionally activates early genes in pea, PS-IAA4/5 and PS-IAA6, that are members of a multigene family encoding short-lived nuclear proteins. To gain first insight into the biological role of PS-IAA4/5 and PSIAA6, promoter-β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene fusions were constructed and their expression during early development of transgenic tobacco seedlings was examined. The comparative analysis reveals spatial and temporal expression patterns of both genes that correlate with cells, tissues, and developmental processes known to be affected by auxin. GUS activity in seedlings of both transgenic lines is located in the root meristem, sites of lateral root initiation and in hypocotyls undergoing rapid elongation. In addition, mutually exclusive cell-specific expression is evident. For instance, PS-IAA4/5GUS but not PS-IAA6GUS is expressed in root vascular tissue and in guard cells, whereas only PS-IAA6GUS activity is detectable in glandular trichomes and redistributes to the elongating side of the hypocotyl upon gravitropic stimulation. Expression of PS-IAA4/5 and PS-IAA6 in elongating, dividing, and differentiating cell types indicates multiple functions during development. The common and yet distinct activity patterns of both genes suggest a combinatorial code of spatio-temporal co-expression of the various PS-IAA4/ 5-like gene family members in plant development that may mediate cell-specific responses to auxin.