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Publikationen - Molekulare Signalverarbeitung

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Vigliocco, A.; Bonamico, B.; Alemano, S.; Miersch, O.; Abdala, G.; Stimulation of jasmonic acid production in Zea Mays L. infected by the maize rough dwarf virus - Río Cuarto. Reversion of symptoms by salicylic acid Biocell 26, 369-374, (2002)

In the present paper we study the possible biological relevance of endogenous jasmonic acid (JA) and exogenous salicylic acid (SA) in a plant-microbial system maize-virus. The virus disease "Mal de Río Cuarto" is caused by the maize rough dwarf virus - Río Cuarto. The characteristic symptoms are the appearance of galls or "enations" in leaves, shortening of the stem internodes, poor radical system and general stunting. Changes in JA and protein pattern in maize control and infected plants of a virus-tolerant cultivar were investigated. Healthy and infected-leaf discs were collected for JA measurement at different post-infection times (20, 40, 60 and 68 days). JA was also measured in roots on day 60 after infection. For SDS-PAGE protein analysis, leaf discs were also harvested on day 60 after infection. Infected leaves showed higher levels of JA than healthy leaves, and the rise in endogenous JA coincided with the enation formation. The soluble protein amount did not show differences between infected and healthy leaves; moreover, no difference in the expression of soluble protein was revealed by SDS-PAGE. Our results show that the octadecanoid pathway was stimulated in leaves and roots of the tolerant maize cultivar when infected by this virus. This finding, together with fewer plants with the disease symptoms, suggest that higher foliar and roots JA content may be related to disease tolerance. SA exogenous treatment caused the reversion of the dwarfism symptom.

Schilling, S.; Hoffmann, T.; Rosche, F.; Manhart, S.; Wasternack, C.; Demuth, H.-U.; Heterologous Expression and Characterization of Human Glutaminyl Cyclase: Evidence for a Disulfide Bond with Importance for Catalytic Activity Biochemistry 41, 10849-10857, (2002) DOI: 10.1021/bi0260381

Glutaminyl cyclase (QC, EC catalyzes the formation of pyroglutamate residues from glutamine at the N-terminus of peptides and proteins. In the current study, human QC was functionally expressed in the secretory pathway of Pichia pastoris, yielding milligram quantities after purification from the supernatant of a 5 L fermentation. Initial characterization studies of the recombinant QC using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry revealed correct proteolytic processing and N-glycosylation at both potential sites with similar 2 kDa extensions. CD spectral analysis indicated a high α-helical content, which contrasts with plant QC from Carica papaya. The kinetic parameters for conversion of H-Gln-Tyr-Ala-OH by recombinant human QC were almost identical to those previously reported for purified bovine pituitary QC. However, the results obtained for conversion of H-Gln-Gln-OH, H-Gln-NH2, and H-Gln-AMC were found to be contradictory to previous studies on human QC expressed intracellularly in E. coli. Expression of QC in E. coli showed that approximately 50% of the protein did not contain a disulfide bond that is present in the entire QC expressed in P. pastoris. Further, the enzyme was consistently inactivated by treatment with 15 mM DTT, whereas deglycosylation had no effect on enzymatic activity. Analysis of the fluorescence spectra of the native, reduced, and unfolded human QC point to a conformational change of the protein upon treatment with DTT. In terms of the different enzymatic properties, the consequences of QC expression in different environments are discussed.

Wasternack, C.; Miersch, O.; Kramell, R.; Hause, B.; Ward, J.; Beale, M.; Boland, W.; Parthier, B.; Feussner, I.; Jasmonic acid: biosynthesis, signal transduction, gene expression Fett/Lipid 100, 139-146, (1998) DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1521-4133(19985)100:4/5<139::AID-LIPI139>3.0.CO;2-5

Jasmonic acid (JA) is an ubiquitously occurring plant growth regulator which functions as a signal of developmentally or environmentally regulated expression of various genes thereby contributing to the defense status of plants [1–5]. The formation of jasmonates in a lipid‐based signalling pathway via octadecanoids seems to be a common principle for many plant species to express wound‐ and stressinduced genes [4, 5].There are various octadecanoid‐derived signals [3]. Among them, jasmonic acid and its amino acid conjugates are most active in barley, supporting arguments that β‐oxidation is an essential step in lipid‐based JA mediated responses. Furthermore, among derivatives of 12‐oxophytodienoic acid (PDA) carrying varying length of the carboxylic acid side‐chain, only those with a straight number of carbon atoms are able to induce JA responsive genes in barley leaves after treatment with these compounds. Barley leaves stressed by treatment with sorbitol solutions exhibit mainly an endogenous rise of JA and JA amino acid conjugates suggesting that both of them are stress signals. Data on organ‐ and tissue‐specific JA‐responsive gene expression will be presented and discussed in terms of “JA as a master switch” among various lipid‐derived signals.

Feussner, I.; Wasternack, C.; Lipoxygenase catalyzed oxygenation of lipids Fett/Lipid 100, 146-152, (1998) DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1521-4133(19985)100:4/5<146::AID-LIPI146>3.0.CO;2-D

Lipoxygenases (LOXs) and other LOX pathway enzymes are potentially able to form a large set of compounds being of commercial interest. Among them are conjugated dienic acids, jasmonates, and volatile aldehydes. Additionally, fatty acid hydroperoxides, formed by LOX, can serve as precursors for further transformation by either enzymes of the so‐called LOX pathway or by chemical reactions. In the case of linoleic acid more than one hundred products generated from its LOX‐derived fatty acid hydroperoxides have been described. Many of these products exhibit biological activity, suggesting a significant biological function of LOXs. This will be described for two different 13‐LOXs. (I) In various oilseeds we found that specific 13‐LOXs are localized at the lipid body membrane. They are capable of oxygenating esterified polyenoic fatty acids, such as triacylglycerols and phospho‐lipids. In addition, they form with arachidonic acid as substrate preferentially either 8‐ or 11‐hydroperoxy eicosatetraenoic acid, which is a very unusual positional specificity for plant LOXs. (II) From barley leaves we isolated another linoleate 13‐LOX form, which is localized within chloroplasts and is induced by jasmonic acid methyl ester. It is suggested, that this LOX form is capable of oxygenating linolenic acid residues of galactolipids. Examples will be presented for barley leaves of oxygenated derivatives of linolenic acid and compounds resulting from the hydroperoxide lyase‐branch of the LOX pathway.
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