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Publikationen - Molekulare Signalverarbeitung

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Zang, J.; Klemm, S.; Pain, C.; Duckney, P.; Bao, Z.; Stamm, G.; Kriechbaumer, V.; Bürstenbinder, K.; Hussey, P. J.; Wang, P.; A novel plant actin-microtubule bridging complex regulates cytoskeletal and ER structure at ER-PM contact sites Curr. Biol. 31, 1251-1260, (2021) DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2020.12.009

In plants, the cortical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network is connected to the plasma membrane (PM) through the ER-PM contact sites (EPCSs), whose structures are maintained by EPCS resident proteins and the cytoskeleton.1-7 Strong co-alignment between EPCSs and the cytoskeleton is observed in plants,1,8 but little is known of how the cytoskeleton is maintained and regulated at the EPCS. Here, we have used a yeast-two-hybrid screen and subsequent in vivo interaction studies in plants by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) analysis to identify two microtubule binding proteins, KLCR1 (kinesin-light-chain-related protein 1) and IQD2 (IQ67-domain 2), that interact with the actin binding protein NET3C and form a component of plant EPCS that mediates the link between the actin and microtubule networks. The NET3C-KLCR1-IQD2 module, acting as an actin-microtubule bridging complex, has a direct influence on ER morphology and EPCS structure. Their loss-of-function mutants, net3a/NET3C RNAi, klcr1, or iqd2, exhibit defects in pavement cell morphology, which we suggest is linked to the disorganization of both actin filaments and microtubules. In conclusion, our results reveal a novel cytoskeletal-associated complex, which is essential for the maintenance and organization of cytoskeletal structure and ER morphology at the EPCS and for normal plant cell morphogenesis.

Vaddepalli, P.; de Zeeuw, T.; Strauss, S.; Bürstenbinder, K.; Liao, C.-Y.; Ramalho, J. J.; Smith, R. S.; Weijers, D.; Auxin-dependent control of cytoskeleton and cell shape regulates division orientation in the Arabidopsis embryo Curr. Biol. 31, 4946-4955, (2021) DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.09.019

Premitotic control of cell division orientation is critical for plant development, as cell walls prevent extensive cell remodeling or migration. While many divisions are proliferative and add cells to existing tissues, some divisions are formative and generate new tissue layers or growth axes. Such formative divisions are often asymmetric in nature, producing daughters with different fates. We have previously shown that, in the Arabidopsis thaliana embryo, developmental asymmetry is correlated with geometric asymmetry, creating daughter cells of unequal volume. Such divisions are generated by division planes that deviate from a default “minimal surface area” rule. Inhibition of auxin response leads to reversal to this default, yet the mechanisms underlying division plane choice in the embryo have been unclear. Here, we show that auxin-dependent division plane control involves alterations in cell geometry, but not in cell polarity axis or nuclear position. Through transcriptome profiling, we find that auxin regulates genes controlling cell wall and cytoskeleton properties. We confirm the involvement of microtubule (MT)-binding proteins in embryo division control. Organization of both MT and actin cytoskeleton depends on auxin response, and genetically controlled MT or actin depolymerization in embryos leads to disruption of asymmetric divisions, including reversion to the default. Our work shows how auxin-dependent control of MT and actin cytoskeleton properties interacts with cell geometry to generate asymmetric divisions during the earliest steps in plant development.Graphical abstract

Girardin, A.; Wang, T.; Ding, Y.; Keller, J.; Buendia, L.; Gaston, M.; Ribeyre, C.; Gasciolli, V.; Auriac, M.-C.; Vernié, T.; Bendahmane, A.; Ried, M. K.; Parniske, M.; Morel, P.; Vandenbussche, M.; Schorderet, M.; Reinhardt, D.; Delaux, P.-M.; Bono, J.-J.; Lefebvre, B.; LCO Receptors Involved in Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Are Functional for Rhizobia Perception in Legumes Curr. Biol. 29, 4249-4259.e5, (2019) DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2019.11.038

Bacterial lipo-chitooligosaccharides (LCOs) are key mediators of the nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis (RNS) in legumes. The isolation of LCOs from arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi suggested that LCOs are also signaling molecules in arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM). However, the corresponding plant receptors have remained uncharacterized. Here we show that petunia and tomato mutants in the LysM receptor-like kinases LYK10 are impaired in AM formation. Petunia and tomato LYK10 proteins have a high affinity for LCOs (Kd in the nM range) comparable to that previously reported for a legume LCO receptor essential for the RNS. Interestingly, the tomato and petunia LYK10 promoters, when introduced into a legume, were active in nodules similarly to the promoter of the legume orthologous gene. Moreover, tomato and petunia LYK10 coding sequences restored nodulation in legumes mutated in their orthologs. This combination of genetic and biochemical data clearly pinpoints Solanaceous LYK10 as part of an ancestral LCO perception system involved in AM establishment, which has been directly recruited during evolution of the RNS in legumes.

Ibañez, C.; Delker, C.; Martinez, C.; Bürstenbinder, K.; Janitza, P.; Lippmann, R.; Ludwig, W.; Sun, H.; James, G. V.; Klecker, M.; Grossjohann, A.; Schneeberger, K.; Prat, S.; Quint, M.; Brassinosteroids Dominate Hormonal Regulation of Plant Thermomorphogenesis via BZR1 Curr. Biol. 28, 303-310.e3, (2018) DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2017.11.077

Thermomorphogenesis is defined as the suite of morphological changes that together are likely to contribute to adaptive growth acclimation to usually elevated ambient temperature [1, 2]. While many details of warmth-induced signal transduction are still elusive, parallels to light signaling recently became obvious (reviewed in [3]). It involves photoreceptors that can also sense changes in ambient temperature [3, 4, 5] and act, for example, by repressing protein activity of the central integrator of temperature information PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4 [6]). In addition, PIF4 transcript accumulation is tightly controlled by the evening complex member EARLY FLOWERING 3 [7, 8]. According to the current understanding, PIF4 activates growth-promoting genes directly but also via inducing auxin biosynthesis and signaling, resulting in cell elongation. Based on a mutagenesis screen in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana for mutants with defects in temperature-induced hypocotyl elongation, we show here that both PIF4 and auxin function depend on brassinosteroids. Genetic and pharmacological analyses place brassinosteroids downstream of PIF4 and auxin. We found that brassinosteroids act via the transcription factor BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANT 1 (BZR1), which accumulates in the nucleus at high temperature, where it induces expression of growth-promoting genes. Furthermore, we show that at elevated temperature BZR1 binds to the promoter of PIF4, inducing its expression. These findings suggest that BZR1 functions in an amplifying feedforward loop involved in PIF4 activation. Although numerous negative regulators of PIF4 have been described, we identify BZR1 here as a true temperature-dependent positive regulator of PIF4, acting as a major growth coordinator.

Antolín-Llovera, M.; Ried, M.; Parniske, M.; Cleavage of the SYMBIOSIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE Ectodomain Promotes Complex Formation with Nod Factor Receptor 5 Curr. Biol. 24, 422-427, (2014) DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2013.12.053

Plants form root symbioses with fungi and bacteria to improve their nutrient supply. SYMBIOSIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE (SYMRK) is required for phosphate-acquiring arbuscular mycorrhiza, as well as for the nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis of legumes [1] and actinorhizal plants [2, 3], but its precise function was completely unclear. Here we show that the extracytoplasmic region of SYMRK, which comprises three leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) and a malectin-like domain (MLD) related to a carbohydrate-binding protein from Xenopus laevis [4], is cleaved to release the MLD in the absence of symbiotic stimulation. A conserved sequence motif—GDPC—that connects the MLD to the LRRs is required for MLD release. We discovered that Nod factor receptor 5 (NFR5) [5, 6, 7, 8] forms a complex with the SYMRK version that remains after MLD release (SYMRK-ΔMLD). SYMRK-ΔMLD outcompeted full-length SYMRK for NFR5 interaction, indicating that the MLD negatively interferes with complex formation. SYMRK-ΔMLD is present at lower amounts than MLD, suggesting rapid degradation after MLD release. A deletion of the entire extracytoplasmic region increased protein abundance, suggesting that the LRR region promotes degradation. Curiously, this deletion led to excessive infection thread formation, highlighting the importance of fine-tuned regulation of SYMRK by its ectodomain.

Vigliocco, A.; Bonamico, B.; Alemano, S.; Miersch, O.; Abdala, G.; Stimulation of jasmonic acid production in Zea Mays L. infected by the maize rough dwarf virus - Río Cuarto. Reversion of symptoms by salicylic acid Biocell 26, 369-374, (2002)

In the present paper we study the possible biological relevance of endogenous jasmonic acid (JA) and exogenous salicylic acid (SA) in a plant-microbial system maize-virus. The virus disease "Mal de Río Cuarto" is caused by the maize rough dwarf virus - Río Cuarto. The characteristic symptoms are the appearance of galls or "enations" in leaves, shortening of the stem internodes, poor radical system and general stunting. Changes in JA and protein pattern in maize control and infected plants of a virus-tolerant cultivar were investigated. Healthy and infected-leaf discs were collected for JA measurement at different post-infection times (20, 40, 60 and 68 days). JA was also measured in roots on day 60 after infection. For SDS-PAGE protein analysis, leaf discs were also harvested on day 60 after infection. Infected leaves showed higher levels of JA than healthy leaves, and the rise in endogenous JA coincided with the enation formation. The soluble protein amount did not show differences between infected and healthy leaves; moreover, no difference in the expression of soluble protein was revealed by SDS-PAGE. Our results show that the octadecanoid pathway was stimulated in leaves and roots of the tolerant maize cultivar when infected by this virus. This finding, together with fewer plants with the disease symptoms, suggest that higher foliar and roots JA content may be related to disease tolerance. SA exogenous treatment caused the reversion of the dwarfism symptom.
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