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Publikationen - Molekulare Signalverarbeitung

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Ryan, P. T.; Ó’Maoiléidigh, D. S.; Drost, H.-G.; Kwaśniewska, K.; Gabel, A.; Grosse, I.; Graciet, E.; Quint, M.; Wellmer, F.; Patterns of gene expression during Arabidopsis flower development from the time of initiation to maturation BMC Genomics 16, 488, (2015) DOI: 10.1186/s12864-015-1699-6

BackgroundThe formation of flowers is one of the main model systems to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that control developmental processes in plants. Although several studies have explored gene expression during flower development in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana on a genome-wide scale, a continuous series of expression data from the earliest floral stages until maturation has been lacking. Here, we used a floral induction system to close this information gap and to generate a reference dataset for stage-specific gene expression during flower formation.ResultsUsing a floral induction system, we collected floral buds at 14 different stages from the time of initiation until maturation. Using whole-genome microarray analysis, we identified 7,405 genes that exhibit rapid expression changes during flower development. These genes comprise many known floral regulators and we found that the expression profiles for these regulators match their known expression patterns, thus validating the dataset. We analyzed groups of co-expressed genes for over-represented cellular and developmental functions through Gene Ontology analysis and found that they could be assigned specific patterns of activities, which are in agreement with the progression of flower development. Furthermore, by mapping binding sites of floral organ identity factors onto our dataset, we were able to identify gene groups that are likely predominantly under control of these transcriptional regulators. We further found that the distribution of paralogs among groups of co-expressed genes varies considerably, with genes expressed predominantly at early and intermediate stages of flower development showing the highest proportion of such genes.ConclusionsOur results highlight and describe the dynamic expression changes undergone by a large number of genes during flower development. They further provide a comprehensive reference dataset for temporal gene expression during flower formation and we demonstrate that it can be used to integrate data from other genomics approaches such as genome-wide localization studies of transcription factor binding sites.

Abdala, G.; Miersch, O.; Kramell, R.; Vigliocco, A.; Agostini, E.; Forchetti, G.; Alemano, S.; Jasmonate and octadecanoid occurrence in tomato hairy roots. Endogenous level changes in response to NaCl Plant Growth Regul. 40, 21-27, (2003) DOI: 10.1023/A:1023016412454

Jasmonic acid biosynthesis occurs in leaves and there is also evidence of a similar pathway in roots. The expression of lipoxygenase, allene oxide cyclase and low amounts of transcripts of allene oxide synthase in tomato roots indicates that some steps of the jasmonate synthesis may occur in these organs. Thus, the aim of the present work was to study the jasmonate and octadecanoid occurrence in tomato roots using isolated cultures of hairy roots. These were obtained by the transformation of cv. Pera roots with Agrobacterium rhyzogenes. Also we investigated the effect of NaCl stress on the endogenous levels of these compounds. Jasmonic acid, 12-oxophytodienoic acid and their methylated derivatives, as well as a jasmonate-isoleucine conjugate, were present in control hairy roots of 30 d of culture. The 12-oxophytodienoic acid and its methylated derivative showed higher levels than jasmonic acid and its methylated form, although the content of the conjugate was the same as that of jasmonic acid. After salinization of hairy roots for 14, 20 and 30 d, free jasmonates and octadecanoids were measured. Fourteen days after salt treatment, increased levels of these compounds were found, jasmonic acid and 12-oxophytodienoic acid showed the most remarkable rise. 11-OH-jasmonic acid was found at 14 d of culture in control and salt-treated hairy roots; whereas the 12-OH- form of jasmonic acid was only detected in the salt-treated hairy roots. Agrobacterium rhizogenes cultures did not produce jasmonates and/or octadecanoids.

Ortel, B.; Atzorn, R.; Hause, B.; Feussner, I.; Miersch, O.; Wasternack, C.; Jasmonate-induced gene expression of barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaves - the link between jasmonate and abscisic acid Plant Growth Regul. 29, 113-122, (1999) DOI: 10.1023/A:1006212017458

In barley leaves a group of genes is expressed in response to treatment with jasmonates and abscisic acid (ABA) [21]. One of these genes coding for a jasmonate-induced protein of 23 kDa (JIP-23) was analyzed to find out the link between ABA and jasmonates by recording its expression upon modulating independently, the endogenous level of both of them. By use of inhibitors of JA synthesis and ABA degradation, and the ABA-deficient mutant Az34, as well as of cultivar-specific differences, it was shown that endogenous jasmonate increases are necessary and sufficient for expression of this gene. The endogenous rise of ABA did not induce synthesis of JIP-23, whereas exogenous ABA did not act via jasmonates. Different signalling pathways are suggested and discussed.

Kramell, R.; Miersch, O.; Schneider, G.; Wasternack, C.; Liquid chromatography of jasmonic acid amine conjugates Chromatographia 49, 42-46, (1999) DOI: 10.1007/BF02467185

Racemic jasmonic acid (3R,7R/3S,7S)-(±)-JA) was chemically conjugated with different biogenic amines originating from aliphatic and aromatic α-amino acids by decarboxylation. The resulting isomeric compounds were subjected to reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and to HPLC on the chiral stationary phases Chiralpak AS and Nucleodex β-PM. Under reversed-phase conditions, all the homologous amine derivatives tested could be separated from each other except the JA-conjugates containing 2-phenyl-ethylamine and 3-methylbutylamine. On both chiral supports the (3R,7R)-(−)-JA conjugates eluted earlier than those of the enantiomeric counterpart (3S,7S)-(+)-JA. On Chiralpak AS all the isomers studied could be separated to baseline with a mobile phase containingn-hexane and 2-propanol. The calculated resolution factors were between 1.80 and 4.17. The pairs of isomers were also chromatographed on the cyclodextrin stationary phase Nucleodex β-PM with methanol-triethylammonium acetate buffer as mobile phase. Under these conditions resolution factors were between 0.74 and 1.29. The individual isomers were chiroptically characterized by measurement of their circular dichroism.

Ward, J. L.; Gaskin, P.; Beale, M. H.; Sessions, R.; Koda, Y.; Wasternack, C.; Molecular modelling, synthesis and biological activity of methyl 3-methyljasmonate and related derivatives Tetrahedron 53, 8181-8194, (1997) DOI: 10.1016/S0040-4020(97)00485-7

Methyl 3-methyljasmonate was synthesised from methyl jasmonate via methyl 3,7-dehydrojasmonate. Molecular modelling predicted an increase in the proportion of cis-orientated side-chains for equilibrated 3-methyl-substituted jasmonate. The synthetic 3-methyljasmonate was shown by gc-ms analysis to equilibrate to a 2:1 ratio of isomers, which appeared from the NMR spectra to comprise mainly the cis-isomer. Surprisingly, both 3,7-dehydro- and 3-methyl-derivatives were inactive in four well established jasmonate bioassays. Methyl-2-methyljasmonate was synthesised and also found to be inactive. Methyl 4,5-dehydrojasmonate was prepared, via the 5-diazo derivative. Both of these compounds have low activity. Our results are discussed with reference to previous knowledge of jasmonate structure-activity relationships and indicate that there are stringent steric demands in jasmonate-receptor interactions.

Kramell, R.; Schneider, G.; Miersch, O.; Chiral separation of amide conjugates of jasmonic acid by liquid chromatography Chromatographia 45, 104-108, (1997) DOI: 10.1007/BF02505545

Synthetic amide conjugates of (−)-jasmonic acid and its (+)-enantiomer were resolved by means of chiral liquid chromatography. The diastereomeric pairs prepared by chemical reaction of (±)-jasmonic acid with a series of (S)- or (R)-amino acids and with some (S)-amino acid alcohols were completely separated on Chiralpak AS using a mixture of n-hexane/2-propanal as mobile phase. The retention data indicate that the (−)-jasmonic acid conjugates eluted faster than those of the (+)-enantiomer, independent on the configuration of the bound amino acid. Likewise, enantiomeric derivatives of (±)-jasmonic acid and non-chiral amino acids were completely separated on the chiral stationary phase and showed the same elution sequence. The resolution factors,Rs, were found to range between 1.13 and 6.64. The separated compounds were chiropatically analyzed by measurement of the circular dichroism.
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