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Publikation

Floková, K.; Feussner, K.; Herrfurth, C.; Miersch, O.; Mik, V.; Tarkowská, D.; Strnad, M.; Feussner, I.; Wasternack, C.; Novák, O.; A previously undescribed jasmonate compound in flowering Arabidopsis thaliana – The identification of cis-(+)-OPDA-Ile Phytochemistry 122, 230-237, (2016) DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2015.11.012

Jasmonates (JAs) are plant hormones that integrate external stress stimuli with physiological responses. (+)-7-iso-JA-L-Ile is the natural JA ligand of COI1, a component of a known JA receptor. The upstream JA biosynthetic precursor cis-(+)-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (cis-(+)-OPDA) has been reported to act independently of COI1 as an essential signal in several stress-induced and developmental processes. Wound-induced increases in the endogenous levels of JA/JA-Ile are accompanied by two to tenfold increases in the concentration of OPDA, but its means of perception and metabolism are unknown. To screen for putative OPDA metabolites, vegetative tissues of flowering Arabidopsis thaliana were extracted with 25% aqueous methanol (v/v), purified by single-step reversed-phase polymer-based solid-phase extraction, and analyzed by high throughput mass spectrometry. This enabled the detection and quantitation of a low abundant OPDA analog of the biologically active (+)-7-iso-JA-L-Ile in plant tissue samples. Levels of the newly identified compound and the related phytohormones JA, JA-Ile and cis-(+)-OPDA were monitored in wounded leaves of flowering Arabidopsis lines (Col-0 and Ws) and compared to the levels observed in Arabidopsis mutants deficient in the biosynthesis of JA (dde2-2, opr3) and JA-Ile (jar1). The observed cis-(+)-OPDA-Ile levels varied widely, raising questions concerning its role in Arabidopsis stress responses.
Publikation

Ryan, P. T.; Ó’Maoiléidigh, D. S.; Drost, H.-G.; Kwaśniewska, K.; Gabel, A.; Grosse, I.; Graciet, E.; Quint, M.; Wellmer, F.; Patterns of gene expression during Arabidopsis flower development from the time of initiation to maturation BMC Genomics 16, 488, (2015) DOI: 10.1186/s12864-015-1699-6

BackgroundThe formation of flowers is one of the main model systems to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that control developmental processes in plants. Although several studies have explored gene expression during flower development in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana on a genome-wide scale, a continuous series of expression data from the earliest floral stages until maturation has been lacking. Here, we used a floral induction system to close this information gap and to generate a reference dataset for stage-specific gene expression during flower formation.ResultsUsing a floral induction system, we collected floral buds at 14 different stages from the time of initiation until maturation. Using whole-genome microarray analysis, we identified 7,405 genes that exhibit rapid expression changes during flower development. These genes comprise many known floral regulators and we found that the expression profiles for these regulators match their known expression patterns, thus validating the dataset. We analyzed groups of co-expressed genes for over-represented cellular and developmental functions through Gene Ontology analysis and found that they could be assigned specific patterns of activities, which are in agreement with the progression of flower development. Furthermore, by mapping binding sites of floral organ identity factors onto our dataset, we were able to identify gene groups that are likely predominantly under control of these transcriptional regulators. We further found that the distribution of paralogs among groups of co-expressed genes varies considerably, with genes expressed predominantly at early and intermediate stages of flower development showing the highest proportion of such genes.ConclusionsOur results highlight and describe the dynamic expression changes undergone by a large number of genes during flower development. They further provide a comprehensive reference dataset for temporal gene expression during flower formation and we demonstrate that it can be used to integrate data from other genomics approaches such as genome-wide localization studies of transcription factor binding sites.
Publikation

Floková, K.; Tarkowská, D.; Miersch, O.; Strnad, M.; Wasternack, C.; Novák, O.; UHPLC–MS/MS based target profiling of stress-induced phytohormones Phytochemistry 105, 147-157, (2014) DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2014.05.015

Stress-induced changes in phytohormone metabolite profiles have rapid effects on plant metabolic activity and growth. The jasmonates (JAs) are a group of fatty acid-derived stress response regulators with roles in numerous developmental processes. To elucidate their dual regulatory effects, which overlap with those of other important defence-signalling plant hormones such as salicylic acid (SA), abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), we have developed a highly efficient single-step clean-up procedure for their enrichment from complex plant matrices that enables their sensitive quantitative analysis using hyphenated mass spectrometry technique. The rapid extraction of minute quantities of plant material (less than 20 mg fresh weight, FW) into cold 10% methanol followed by one-step reversed-phase polymer-based solid phase extraction significantly reduced matrix effects and increased the recovery of labile JA analytes. This extraction and purification protocol was paired with a highly sensitive and validated ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS/MS) method and used to simultaneously profile sixteen stress-induced phytohormones in minute plant material samples, including endogenous JA, several of its biosynthetic precursors and derivatives, as well as SA, ABA and IAA.
Publikation

Ziegler, J.; Facchini, P. J.; Geißler, R.; Schmidt, J.; Ammer, C.; Kramell, R.; Voigtländer, S.; Gesell, A.; Pienkny, S.; Brandt, W.; Evolution of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy Phytochemistry 70, 1696-1707, (2009) DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2009.07.006

Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are a group of nitrogen-containing plant secondary metabolites comprised of an estimated 2500 identified structures. In BIA metabolism, (S)-reticuline is a key branch-point intermediate that can be directed into several alkaloid subtypes with different structural skeleton configurations. The morphinan alkaloids are one subclass of BIAs produced in only a few plant species, most notably and abundantly in the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). Comparative transcriptome analysis of opium poppy and several other Papaver species that do not accumulate morphinan alkaloids showed that known genes encoding BIA biosynthetic enzymes are expressed at higher levels in P. somniferum. Three unknown cDNAs that are co-ordinately expressed with several BIA biosynthetic genes were identified as enzymes in the pathway. One of these enzymes, salutaridine reductase (SalR), which is specific for the production of morphinan alkaloids, was isolated and heterologously overexpressed in its active form not only from P. somniferum, but also from Papaver species that do not produce morphinan alkaloids. SalR is a member of a class of short chain dehydrogenase/reductases (SDRs) that are active as monomers and possess an extended amino acid sequence compared with classical SDRs. Homology modelling and substrate docking revealed the substrate binding site for SalR. The amino acids residues conferring salutaridine binding were compared to several members of the SDR family from different plant species, which non-specifically reduce (−)-menthone to (+)-neomenthol. Previously, it was shown that some of these proteins are involved in plant defence. The recruitment of specific monomeric SDRs from monomeric SDRs involved in plant defence is discussed.
Publikation

Stenzel, I.; Hause, B.; Proels, R.; Miersch, O.; Oka, M.; Roitsch, T.; Wasternack, C.; The AOC promoter of tomato is regulated by developmental and environmental stimuli Phytochemistry 69, 1859-1869, (2008) DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2008.03.007

The allene oxide cyclase (AOC) catalyzes the formation of cis-(+)-12-oxophytodienoic acid, an intermediate in jasmonate biosynthesis and is encoded by a single copy gene in tomato. The full length AOC promoter isolated by genome walk contains 3600 bp. Transgenic tomato lines carrying a 1000 bp promoter fragment and the full length promoter, respectively, in front of the β-glucuronidase (GUS)-encoding uidA gene and several tobacco lines carrying the full length tomato AOC promoter before GUS were used to record organ- and tissue-specific promoter activities during development and in response to various stimuli. High promoter activities corresponding to immunocytochemically detected occurrence of the AOC protein were found in seeds and young seedlings and were confined to the root tip, hypocotyl and cotyledons of 3-d-old seedlings. In 10-d-old seedlings promoter activity appeared preferentially in the elongation zone. Fully developed tomato leaves were free of AOC promoter activity, but showed high activity upon wounding locally and systemically or upon treatment with JA, systemin or glucose. Tomato flowers showed high AOC promoter activities in ovules, sepals, anthers and pollen. Most of the promoter activity patterns found in tomato with the 1000 bp promoter fragment were also detected with the full length tomato AOC promoter in tobacco during development or in response to various stimuli. The data support a spatial and temporal regulation of JA biosynthesis during development and in response to environmental stimuli.
Publikation

Delker, C.; Zolman, B. K.; Miersch, O.; Wasternack, C.; Jasmonate biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana requires peroxisomal β-oxidation enzymes – Additional proof by properties of pex6 and aim1 Phytochemistry 68, 1642-1650, (2007) DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2007.04.024

Jasmonic acid (JA) is an important regulator of plant development and stress responses. Several enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of JA from α-linolenic acid have been characterized. The final biosynthesis steps are the β-oxidation of 12-oxo-phytoenoic acid. We analyzed JA biosynthesis in the Arabidopsis mutants pex6, affected in peroxisome biogenesis, and aim1, disrupted in fatty acid β-oxidation. Upon wounding, these mutants exhibit reduced JA levels compared to wild type. pex6 accumulated the precursor OPDA. Feeding experiments with deuterated OPDA substantiate this accumulation pattern, suggesting the mutants are impaired in the β-oxidation of JA biosynthesis at different steps. Decreased expression of JA-responsive genes, such as VSP1, VSP2, AtJRG21 and LOX2, following wounding in the mutants compared to the wild type reflects the reduced JA levels of the mutants. By use of these additional mutants in combination with feeding experiments, the necessity of functional peroxisomes for JA-biosynthesis is confirmed. Furthermore an essential function of one of the two multifunctional proteins of fatty acid β-oxidation (AIM1) for wound-induced JA formation is demonstrated for the first time. These data confirm that JA biosynthesis occurs via peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation machinery.
Publikation

Sharma, V. K.; Monostori, T.; Göbel, C.; Hänsch, R.; Bittner, F.; Wasternack, C.; Feussner, I.; Mendel, R. R.; Hause, B.; Schulze, J.; Transgenic barley plants overexpressing a 13-lipoxygenase to modify oxylipin signature Phytochemistry 67, 264-276, (2006) DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2005.11.009

Three chimeric gene constructs were designed comprising the full length cDNA of a lipoxygenase (LOX) from barley (LOX2:Hv:1) including its chloroplast targeting sequence (cTP) under control of either (1) CaMV35S- or (2) polyubiquitin-1-promoter, whereas the third plasmid contains 35S promoter and the cDNA without cTP. Transgenic barley plants overexpressing LOX2:Hv:1 were generated by biolistics of scutella from immature embryos. Transformation frequency for 35S::LOX with or without cTP was in a range known for barley particle bombardment, whereas for Ubi::cTP-LOX no transgenic plants were detected. In general, a high number of green plantlets selected on bialaphos became yellow and finally died either in vitro or after potting. All transgenic plants obtained were phenotypically indistinguishable from wild type plants and all of them set seeds. The corresponding protein (LOX-100) in transgenic T0 and T1 plants accumulated constitutively to similar levels as in the jasmonic acid methyl ester (JAME)-treated wild type plants. Moreover, LOX-100 was clearly detectable immunocytochemically within the chloroplasts of untreated T0 plants containing the LOX-100-cDNA with the chloroplast target sequence. In contrast, an exclusive localization of LOX-100 in the cytoplasm was detectable when the target sequence was removed. In comparison to sorbitol-treated wild type leaves, analysis of oxylipin profiles in T2 progenies showed higher levels of jasmonic acid (JA) for those lines that displayed elevated levels of LOX-100 in the chloroplasts and for those lines that harboured LOX-100 in the cytoplasm, respectively. The studies demonstrate for the first time the constitutive overexpression of a cDNA coding for a 13-LOX in a monocotyledonous species and indicate a link between the occurrence of LOX-100 and senescence.
Publikation

Miersch, O.; Weichert, H.; Stenzel, I.; Hause, B.; Maucher, H.; Feussner, I.; Wasternack, C.; Constitutive overexpression of allene oxide cyclase in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Lukullus) elevates levels of some jasmonates and octadecanoids in flower organs but not in leaves Phytochemistry 65, 847-856, (2004) DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2004.01.016

The allene oxide cyclase (AOC), an enzyme in jasmonate biosynthesis, occurs in vascular bundles and ovules of tomato flowers which exhibit a tissue-specific oxylipin signature (Plant J. 24, 113-126, 2000). Constitutive overexpression of the AOC did not led to altered levels of jasmonates in leaves, but these levels increased upon wounding or other stresses suggesting regulation of jasmonate biosynthesis by substrate availability (Plant J. 33, 577-589, 2003). Here, we show dramatic changes in levels of jasmonic acid (JA), of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), their methyl esters (JAME, OPDAME), and of dinor-OPDA in most flower organs upon constitutive overexpression of AOC. Beside a dominant occurrence of OPDAME and JA in most flower organs, the ratio among the various compounds was altered differentially in the organs of transgenic flowers, e.g. OPDAME increased up to 53-fold in stamen, and JA increased about 51-fold in buds and 7.5-fold in sepals. The increase in jasmonates and octadecanoids was accompanied by decreased levels of free lipid hydro(per)oxy compounds. Except for 16:2, the AOC overexpression led to a significant increase in free but not esterified polyunsaturated fatty acids in all flower organs. The data suggest different regulation of JA biosynthesis in leaves and flowers of tomato.Constitutive overexpression of the AOC increases in all flower organs levels of some jasmonates and octadecanoids, alters the ratios among the compounds, decreases levels of free lipid hydro(per)oxy compounds and increases levels of free but not of esterified polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Publikation

Maucher, H.; Stenzel, I.; Miersch, O.; Stein, N.; Prasad, M.; Zierold, U.; Schweizer, P.; Dorer, C.; Hause, B.; Wasternack, C.; The allene oxide cyclase of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)—cloning and organ-specific expression Phytochemistry 65, 801-811, (2004) DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2004.01.009

The naturally occurring enantiomer of the various octadecanoids and jasmonates is established in a biosynthetic step catalyzed by the allene oxide cyclase (AOC). The AOC converts an allene oxide formed by an allene oxide synthase (AOS). Here, we show cloning and characterization of cDNAs encoding the AOC and a third AOS, respectively, in addition to the two AOSs previously published (Plant J. 21, 199–213, 2000). The ORF of the AOC-cDNA of 717 bp codes for a protein of 238 amino acid residues carrying a putative chloroplast target sequence. Overexpression without chloroplast target sequence revealed AOC activity. The AOC was found to be a single copy gene which mapped on chromosome 6H. AOC mRNA accumulation appeared in leaf segments upon treatment with various jasmonates, octadecanoids and ABA or during stress such as treatment with sorbitol or glucose solutions. Infection with powdery mildew activated AOC expression in susceptible and resistant lines of barley which correlated with PR1b expression. Among different tissues of barley seedlings, the scutellar node and leaf base accumulated AOC mRNA preferentially which correlated with accumulation of mRNAs for other biosynthetic enzymes (lipoxygenases, AOSs). AOC mRNA accumulation appeared also abundantly in parts of the root containing the tip and correlated with elevated levels of jasmonates. The data suggest a link of AOC expression and JA formation and support role of JA in stress responses and development of barley.Barley plants contain one allene oxide cyclase and three allene oxide synthases which are up-regulated during seedling development accompanied by elevated levels of jasmonate.
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