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Publikationen - Molekulare Signalverarbeitung

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Publikation

Jablonická, V.; Ziegler, J.; Vatehová, Z.; Lišková, D.; Heilmann, I.; Obložinský, M.; Heilmann, M. Inhibition of phospholipases influences the metabolism of wound-induced benzylisoquinoline alkaloids in Papaver somniferum L. J Plant Physiol 223, 1-8, (2018) DOI: 10.1016/j.jplph.2018.01.007

Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are important secondary plant metabolites and include medicinally relevant drugs, such as morphine or codeine. As the de novo synthesis of BIA backbones is (still) unfeasible, to date the opium poppy plant Papaver somniferum L. represents the main source of BIAs. The formation of BIAs is induced in poppy plants by stress conditions, such as wounding or salt treatment; however, the details about regulatory processes controlling BIA formation in opium poppy are not well studied. Environmental stresses, such as wounding or salinization, are transduced in plants by phospholipid-based signaling pathways, which involve different classes of phospholipases. Here we investigate whether pharmacological inhibition of phospholipase A2 (PLA2, inhibited by aristolochic acid (AA)) or phospholipase D (PLD; inhibited by 5-fluoro-2-indolyl des-chlorohalopemide (FIPI)) in poppy plants influences wound-induced BIA accumulation and the expression of key biosynthetic genes. We show that inhibition of PLA2 results in increased morphinan biosynthesis concomitant with reduced production of BIAs of the papaverine branch, whereas inhibition of PLD results in increased production of BIAs of the noscapine branch. The data suggest that phospholipid-dependent signaling pathways contribute to the activation of morphine biosynthesis at the expense of the production of other BIAs in poppy plants. A better understanding of the effectors and the principles of regulation of alkaloid biosynthesis might be the basis for the future genetic modification of opium poppy to optimize BIA production.
Publikation

Wasternack, C.; Kombrink, E. Jasmonates: Structural Requirements for Lipid-Derived Signals Active in Plant Stress Responses and Development ACS Chem. Biol doi: 10.1021/cb900269u 5(1), 63 - 77, (2010)

Jasmonates are lipid-derived signals that mediate plant stress responses and development processes. Enzymes participating in biosynthesis of jasmonic acid (JA) (1, 2) and components of JA signaling have been extensively characterized by biochemical and molecular-genetic tools. Mutants of Arabidopsis and tomato have helped to define the pathway for synthesis of jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile), the active form of JA, and to identify the F-box protein COI1 as central regulatory unit. However, details of the molecular mechanism of JA signaling have only recently been unraveled by the discovery of JAZ proteins that function in transcriptional repression. The emerging picture of JA perception and signaling cascade implies the SCFCOI1 complex operating as E3 ubiquitin ligase that upon binding of JA-Ile targets JAZ repressors for degradation by the 26S-proteasome pathway, thereby allowing the transcription factor MYC2 to activate gene expression. The fact that only one particular stereoisomer, (+)-7-iso-JA-l-Ile (4), shows high biological activity suggests that epimerization between active and inactive diastereomers could be a mechanism for turning JA signaling on or off. The recent demonstration that COI1 directly binds (+)-7-iso-JA-l-Ile (4) and thus functions as JA receptor revealed that formation of the ternary complex COI1-JA-Ile-JAZ is an ordered process. The pronounced differences in biological activity of JA stereoisomers also imply strict stereospecific control of product formation along the JA biosynthetic pathway. The pathway of JA biosynthesis has been unraveled, and most of the participating enzymes are well-characterized. For key enzymes of JA biosynthesis the crystal structures have been established, allowing insight into the mechanisms of catalysis and modes of substrate binding that lead to formation of stereospecific products.
Publikation

Abel, S.; Savchenko, T.; Levy, M. Genome-wide comparative analysis of the <em>IQD</em> gene families in <em>Arabidopsis thaliana</em> and Oryza sativa BMC Evolutionary Biology 5, 72 (1-25), (2005)

We identified and analyzed 33 and 29 IQD1-like genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, respectively. The encoded IQD proteins contain a plant-specific domain of 67 conserved amino acid residues, referred to as the IQ67 domain, which is characterized by a unique and repetitive arrangement of three different calmodulin recruitment motifs, known as the IQ, 1-5-10, and 1-8-14 motifs. We demonstrated calmodulin binding for IQD20, the smallest IQD protein in Arabidopsis, which consists of a C-terminal IQ67 domain and a short N-terminal extension. A striking feature of IQD proteins is the high isoelectric point (~10.3) and frequency of serine residues (~11%). We compared the Arabidopsis and rice IQD gene families in terms of gene structure, chromosome location, predicted protein properties and motifs, phylogenetic relationships, and evolutionary history. The existence of an IQD-like gene in bryophytes suggests that IQD proteins are an ancient family of calmodulin-binding proteins and arose during the early evolution of land plants. Comparative phylogenetic analyses indicate that the major IQD gene lineages originated before the monocot-eudicot divergence. The extant IQD loci in Arabidopsis primarily resulted from segmental duplication and reflect preferential retention of paralogous genes, which is characteristic for proteins with regulatory functions. Interaction of IQD1 and IQD20 with calmodulin and the presence of predicted calmodulin binding sites in all IQD family members suggest that IQD proteins are a new class of calmodulin targets. The basic isoelectric point of IQD proteins and their frequently predicted nuclear localization suggest that IQD proteins link calcium signaling pathways to the regulation of gene expression. Our comparative genomics analysis of IQD genes and encoded proteins in two model plant species provides the first step towards the functional dissection of this emerging family of putative calmodulin targets.
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