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Publikation

Girardin, A.; Wang, T.; Ding, Y.; Keller, J.; Buendia, L.; Gaston, M.; Ribeyre, C.; Gasciolli, V.; Auriac, M.-C.; Vernié, T.; Bendahmane, A.; Ried, M. K.; Parniske, M.; Morel, P.; Vandenbussche, M.; Schorderet, M.; Reinhardt, D.; Delaux, P.-M.; Bono, J.-J.; Lefebvre, B. LCO Receptors Involved in Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Are Functional for Rhizobia Perception in Legumes Curr Biol 29, 4249-4259.e5, (2019) DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2019.11.038

Bacterial lipo-chitooligosaccharides (LCOs) are key mediators of the nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis (RNS) in legumes. The isolation of LCOs from arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi suggested that LCOs are also signaling molecules in arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM). However, the corresponding plant receptors have remained uncharacterized. Here we show that petunia and tomato mutants in the LysM receptor-like kinases LYK10 are impaired in AM formation. Petunia and tomato LYK10 proteins have a high affinity for LCOs (Kd in the nM range) comparable to that previously reported for a legume LCO receptor essential for the RNS. Interestingly, the tomato and petunia LYK10 promoters, when introduced into a legume, were active in nodules similarly to the promoter of the legume orthologous gene. Moreover, tomato and petunia LYK10 coding sequences restored nodulation in legumes mutated in their orthologs. This combination of genetic and biochemical data clearly pinpoints Solanaceous LYK10 as part of an ancestral LCO perception system involved in AM establishment, which has been directly recruited during evolution of the RNS in legumes.
Publikation

Krägeloh, T.; Cavalleri, J. M. V.; Ziegler, J.; Sander, J.; Terhardt, M.; Breves, G.; Cehak, A. Identification of hypoglycin A binding adsorbents as potential preventive measures in co-grazers of atypical myopathy affected horses Equine Vet J 50, 220-227, (2018) DOI: 10.1111/evj.12723

BackgroundIntestinal absorption of hypoglycin A (HGA) and its metabolism are considered major prerequisites for atypical myopathy (AM). The increasing incidence and the high mortality rate of AM urgently necessitate new therapeutic and/or preventative approaches.ObjectivesTo identify a substance for oral administration capable of binding HGA in the intestinal lumen and effectively reducing the intestinal absorption of the toxin.Study designExperimental in vitro study.MethodsSubstances commonly used in equine practice (activated charcoal composition, di‐tri‐octahedral smectite, mineral oil and activated charcoal) were tested for their binding capacity for HGA using an in vitro incubation method. The substance most effective in binding HGA was subsequently tested for its potential to reduce intestinal HGA absorption. Jejunal tissues of 6 horses were incubated in Ussing chambers to determine mucosal uptake, tissue accumulation, and serosal release of HGA in the presence and absence of the target substance. Potential intestinal metabolism in methylenecyclopropyl acetic acid (MCPA)‐conjugates was investigated by analysing their concentrations in samples from the Ussing chambers.ResultsActivated charcoal composition and activated charcoal were identified as potent HGA binding substances with dose and pH dependent binding capacity. There was no evidence of intestinal HGA metabolism.Main limitationsBinding capacity of adsorbents was tested in vitro using aqueous solutions, and in vivo factors such as transit time and composition of intestinal content, may affect adsorption capacity after oral administration.ConclusionsFor the first time, this study identifies substances capable of reducing HGA intestinal absorption. This might have major implications as a preventive measure in cograzers of AM affected horses but also in horses at an early stage of intoxication.
Publikation

Ibañez, C.; Delker, C.; Martinez, C.; Bürstenbinder, K.; Janitza, P.; Lippmann, R.; Ludwig, W.; Sun, H.; James, G. V.; Klecker, M.; Grossjohann, A.; Schneeberger, K.; Prat, S.; Quint, M. Brassinosteroids Dominate Hormonal Regulation of Plant Thermomorphogenesis via BZR1 Curr Biol 28, 303-310.e3, (2018) DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2017.11.077

Thermomorphogenesis is defined as the suite of morphological changes that together are likely to contribute to adaptive growth acclimation to usually elevated ambient temperature [ 1, 2 ]. While many details of warmth-induced signal transduction are still elusive, parallels to light signaling recently became obvious (reviewed in [ 3 ]). It involves photoreceptors that can also sense changes in ambient temperature [ 3–5 ] and act, for example, by repressing protein activity of the central integrator of temperature information PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4 [ 6 ]). In addition, PIF4 transcript accumulation is tightly controlled by the evening complex member EARLY FLOWERING 3 [ 7, 8 ]. According to the current understanding, PIF4 activates growth-promoting genes directly but also via inducing auxin biosynthesis and signaling, resulting in cell elongation. Based on a mutagenesis screen in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana for mutants with defects in temperature-induced hypocotyl elongation, we show here that both PIF4 and auxin function depend on brassinosteroids. Genetic and pharmacological analyses place brassinosteroids downstream of PIF4 and auxin. We found that brassinosteroids act via the transcription factor BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANT 1 (BZR1), which accumulates in the nucleus at high temperature, where it induces expression of growth-promoting genes. Furthermore, we show that at elevated temperature BZR1 binds to the promoter of PIF4, inducing its expression. These findings suggest that BZR1 functions in an amplifying feedforward loop involved in PIF4 activation. Although numerous negative regulators of PIF4 have been described, we identify BZR1 here as a true temperature-dependent positive regulator of PIF4, acting as a major growth coordinator.
Publikation

Antolín-Llovera, M.; Ried, M. K.; Parniske, M. Cleavage of the SYMBIOSIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE Ectodomain Promotes Complex Formation with Nod Factor Receptor 5 Curr Biol 24, 422-427, (2014) DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2013.12.053

Plants form root symbioses with fungi and bacteria to improve their nutrient supply. SYMBIOSIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE (SYMRK) is required for phosphate-acquiring arbuscular mycorrhiza, as well as for the nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis of legumes [1] and actinorhizal plants [2, 3], but its precise function was completely unclear. Here we show that the extracytoplasmic region of SYMRK, which comprises three leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) and a malectin-like domain (MLD) related to a carbohydrate-binding protein from Xenopus laevis [4], is cleaved to release the MLD in the absence of symbiotic stimulation. A conserved sequence motif—GDPC—that connects the MLD to the LRRs is required for MLD release. We discovered that Nod factor receptor 5 (NFR5) [5, 6, 7, 8] forms a complex with the SYMRK version that remains after MLD release (SYMRK-ΔMLD). SYMRK-ΔMLD outcompeted full-length SYMRK for NFR5 interaction, indicating that the MLD negatively interferes with complex formation. SYMRK-ΔMLD is present at lower amounts than MLD, suggesting rapid degradation after MLD release. A deletion of the entire extracytoplasmic region increased protein abundance, suggesting that the LRR region promotes degradation. Curiously, this deletion led to excessive infection thread formation, highlighting the importance of fine-tuned regulation of SYMRK by its ectodomain.
Publikation

Wasternack, C.; Stenzel, I.; Hause, B.; Hause, G.; Kutter, C.; Maucher, H.; Neumerkel, J.; Feussner, I.; Miersch, O. The wound response in tomato - Role of jasmonic acid J. Plant Physiol 163, 297-306 , (2006) DOI: 10.1016/j.jplph.2005.10.014

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Publikation

Abel, S.; Savchenko, T.; Levy, M. Genome-wide comparative analysis of the <em>IQD</em> gene families in <em>Arabidopsis thaliana</em> and Oryza sativa BMC Evolutionary Biology 5, 72 (1-25), (2005)

We identified and analyzed 33 and 29 IQD1-like genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, respectively. The encoded IQD proteins contain a plant-specific domain of 67 conserved amino acid residues, referred to as the IQ67 domain, which is characterized by a unique and repetitive arrangement of three different calmodulin recruitment motifs, known as the IQ, 1-5-10, and 1-8-14 motifs. We demonstrated calmodulin binding for IQD20, the smallest IQD protein in Arabidopsis, which consists of a C-terminal IQ67 domain and a short N-terminal extension. A striking feature of IQD proteins is the high isoelectric point (~10.3) and frequency of serine residues (~11%). We compared the Arabidopsis and rice IQD gene families in terms of gene structure, chromosome location, predicted protein properties and motifs, phylogenetic relationships, and evolutionary history. The existence of an IQD-like gene in bryophytes suggests that IQD proteins are an ancient family of calmodulin-binding proteins and arose during the early evolution of land plants. Comparative phylogenetic analyses indicate that the major IQD gene lineages originated before the monocot-eudicot divergence. The extant IQD loci in Arabidopsis primarily resulted from segmental duplication and reflect preferential retention of paralogous genes, which is characteristic for proteins with regulatory functions. Interaction of IQD1 and IQD20 with calmodulin and the presence of predicted calmodulin binding sites in all IQD family members suggest that IQD proteins are a new class of calmodulin targets. The basic isoelectric point of IQD proteins and their frequently predicted nuclear localization suggest that IQD proteins link calcium signaling pathways to the regulation of gene expression. Our comparative genomics analysis of IQD genes and encoded proteins in two model plant species provides the first step towards the functional dissection of this emerging family of putative calmodulin targets.
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