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Flores, R.; Gago-Zachert, S.; Serra, P.; Sanjuán, R.; Elena, S. F. Viroids: Survivors from the RNA World? Annual Rev Microbiol 68, 395 - 414, (2014) DOI: 10.1146/annurev-micro-091313-103416

Because RNA can be a carrier of genetic information and a biocatalyst, there is a consensus that it emerged before DNA and proteins, which eventually assumed these roles and relegated RNA to intermediate functions. If such a scenario—the so-called RNA world—existed, we might hope to find its relics in our present world. The properties of viroids that make them candidates for being survivors of the RNA world include those expected for primitive RNA replicons: (a) small size imposed by error-prone replication, (b) high G+ C content to increase replication fidelity, (c) circular structure for assuring complete replication without genomic tags, (d) structural periodicity for modular assembly into enlarged genomes, (e) lack of protein-coding ability consistent with a ribosome-free habitat, and (f) replication mediated in some by ribozymes, the fingerprint of the RNA world. With the advent of DNA and proteins, those protoviroids lost some abilities and became the plant parasites we now know.

Wasternack, C.; Stenzel, I.; Hause, B.; Hause, G.; Kutter, C.; Maucher, H.; Neumerkel, J.; Feussner, I.; Miersch, O. The wound response in tomato - Role of jasmonic acid J. Plant Physiol 163, 297-306 , (2006) DOI: 10.1016/j.jplph.2005.10.014


Sharma, V.K.; Monostori, T.; Hause, B.; Maucher, H.; Göbel, C.; Hornung, E.; Hänsch, R.; Bittner, F.; Wasternack, C.; Feussner, I.; Mendel, R.R.; Schulze, J. Genetic transformation of barley to modify expression of a 13-lipoxygenase Acta Biol. Szeged 49, 33-34 , (2005)

Immature scutella of barley were transformed with cDNA coding for a 13-li-poxygenase of barley (LOX-100) via particle bombardment. Regenerated plants were tested by PAT-assay, Western-analysis and PCR-screening. Immunocytochemical assay of T0 plants showed expression of the LOX cDNA both in the chloroplasts and in the cytosol, depending on the presence of the chloroplast signal peptide sequences in the cDNA. A few transgenic plants containing higher amounts of LOX-derived products have been found. These are the candidates for further analysis concerning pathogen resistance.
Bücher und Buchkapitel

Vaira, A.M.; Acotto, G.P.; Gago-Zachert, S.; García, M.L.; Grau, O.; Milne, R.G.; Morikawa, T.; Natsuaki, T.; Torov, V.; Verbeek, M.; Vetten, H.J. Genus Ophiovirus (Fauquet, C. M., Mayo, M. A., Maniloff, J., Desselberger, U., Ball, L. A.). Elsevier, Academic Press 673-679, (2005) ISBN: 9780080575483; 9780122499517

Virus Taxonomy is a standard and comprehensive source for the classification of viruses, created by the International Committee of the Taxonomy of Viruses. The book includes eight taxonomic reports of the ICTV and provides comprehensive information on 3 taxonomic orders of viruses, 73 families, 9 subfamilies, 287 genera, and 1938 virus species. The book also features about 429 colored pictures and diagrams for more efficient learning. The text is divided into four parts, comprised of 16 chapters and presenting the following features: • Compiled data from numerous international experts about virus taxonomy and nomenclature • Organized information on over 6000 recognized viruses, illustrated with diagrams of genome organization and virus replication cycle • Data on the phylogenetic relationships among viruses of the same and different taxa • Discussion of the qualitative and quantitative relationships of virus sequences The book is a definitive reference for microbiologists, molecular biologists, research-level virologists, infectious disease specialists, and pharmaceutical researchers working on antiviral agents. Students and novices in taxonomy and nomenclature will also find this text useful. 
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