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Publikation

Stenzel, I.; Ischebeck, T.; Quint, M.; Heilmann, I. Variable regions of PI4P 5-kinases direct PtdIns(4,5)P2 towards alternative regulatory functions in tobacco pollen tubes Front. Plant Sci 2, 114, (2012)

The apical plasma membrane of pollen tubes contains different PI4P 5-kinases that all produce phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] but exert distinct cellular effects. In the present example, overexpression of Arabidopsis AtPIP5K5 or tobacco NtPIP5K6-1 caused growth defects previously attributed to increased pectin secretion. In contrast, overexpression of Arabidopsis AtPIP5K2 caused apical tip swelling implicated in altering actin fine structure in the pollen tube apex. AtPIP5K5, NtPIP5K6-1, and AtPIP5K2 share identical domain structures. Domains required for correct membrane association of the enzymes were identified by systematic deletion of N-terminal domains and subsequent expression of fluorescence-tagged enzyme truncations in tobacco pollen tubes. A variable linker region (Lin) contained in all PI4P 5-kinase isoforms of subfamily B, but not conserved in sequence, was recognized to be necessary for correct subcellular localization of AtPIP5K5, NtPIP5K6-1, and AtPIP5K2. Deletion of N-terminal domains including the Lin domain did not impair catalytic activity of recombinant AtPIP5K5, NtPIP5K6-1, or AtPIP5K2 in vitro; however, the presence of the Lin domain was necessary for in vivo effects on pollen tube growth upon overexpression of truncated enzymes. Overexpression of catalytically inactive variants of AtPIP5K5, NtPIP5K6-1, or AtPIP5K2 did not influence pollen tube growth, indicating that PtdIns(4,5)P2 production rather than structural properties of PI4P 5-kinases was relevant for the manifestation of growth phenotypes. When Lin domains were swapped between NtPIP5K6-1 and AtPIP5K2 and the chimeric enzymes overexpressed in pollen tubes, the chimeras reciprocally gained the capabilities to invoke tip swelling or secretion phenotypes, respectively. The data indicate that the Lin domain directed the enzymes into different regulatory contexts, possibly contributing to channeling of PtdIns(4,5)P2 at the interface of secretion and actin cytoskeleton.
Publikation

Sharma, V.K.; Monostori, T.; Hause, B.; Maucher, H.; Göbel, C.; Hornung, E.; Hänsch, R.; Bittner, F.; Wasternack, C.; Feussner, I.; Mendel, R.R.; Schulze, J. Genetic transformation of barley to modify expression of a 13-lipoxygenase Acta Biol. Szeged 49, 33-34 , (2005)

Immature scutella of barley were transformed with cDNA coding for a 13-li-poxygenase of barley (LOX-100) via particle bombardment. Regenerated plants were tested by PAT-assay, Western-analysis and PCR-screening. Immunocytochemical assay of T0 plants showed expression of the LOX cDNA both in the chloroplasts and in the cytosol, depending on the presence of the chloroplast signal peptide sequences in the cDNA. A few transgenic plants containing higher amounts of LOX-derived products have been found. These are the candidates for further analysis concerning pathogen resistance.
Publikation

Abel, S.; Ballas, N.; Wong, L-M.; Theologis, A. DNA elements responsive to auxin Bio Essays 18(8), 647-654, (1996)

Genes induced by the plant hormone auxin are probably involved in the execution of vital cellular functions and developmental processes. Experimental approaches designed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of auxin action have focused on auxin perception, genetic dissection of the signaling apparatus and specific gene activation. Auxin-responsive promoter elements of early genes provide molecular tools for probing auxin signaling in reverse. Functional analysis of several auxin-specific promoters of unrelated early genes suggests combinatorial utilization of both conserved and variable elements. These elements are arranged into autonomous domains and the combination of such modules generates uniquely composed promoters. Modular promoters allow for auxin-mediated transcriptional responses to be revealed in a tissue- and development-specific manner.
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