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Floß, D. S.; Hause, B.; Lange, P. R.; Küster, H.; Strack, D.; Walter, M. H.; Knock-down of the MEP pathway isogene 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase 2 inhibits formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza-induced apocarotenoids, and abolishes normal expression of mycorrhiza-specific plant marker genes Plant J. 56, 86-100, (2008) DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2008.03575.x

The first step of the plastidial methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway is catalyzed by two isoforms of 1‐deoxy‐d‐ xylulose 5‐phosphate synthase (DXS1 and DXS2). In Medicago truncatula , MtDXS1 and MtDXS2 genes exhibit completely different expression patterns. Most prominently, colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi induces the accumulation of certain apocarotenoids (cyclohexenone and mycorradicin derivatives) correlated with the expression of MtDXS2 but not of MtDXS1. To prove a distinct function of DXS2, a selective RNAi approach on MtDXS2 expression was performed in transgenic hairy roots of M. truncatula. Repression of MtDXS2 consistently led to reduced transcript levels in mycorrhizal roots, and to a concomitant reduction of AM‐induced apocarotenoid accumulation. The transcript levels of MtDXS1 remained unaltered in RNAi plants, and no phenotypical changes in non‐AM plants were observed. Late stages of the AM symbiosis were adversely affected, but only upon strong repression with residual MtDXS2‐1 transcript levels remaining below approximately 10%. This condition resulted in a strong decrease in the transcript levels of MtPT4 , an AM‐specific plant phosphate transporter gene, and in a multitude of other AM‐induced plant marker genes, as shown by transcriptome analysis. This was accompanied by an increased proportion of degenerating and dead arbuscules at the expense of mature ones. The data reveal a requirement for DXS2‐dependent MEP pathway‐based isoprenoid products to sustain mycorrhizal functionality at later stages of the symbiosis. They further validate the concept of a distinct role for DXS2 in secondary metabolism, and offer a novel tool to selectively manipulate the levels of secondary isoprenoids by targeting their precursor supply.

Fellenberg, C.; Milkowski, C.; Hause, B.; Lange, P.-R.; Böttcher, C.; Schmidt, J.; Vogt, T.; Tapetum-specific location of a cation-dependent O-methyltransferase in Arabidopsis thaliana Plant J. 56, 132-145, (2008) DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2008.03576.x

Cation‐ and S ‐adenosyl‐l ‐methionine (AdoMet)‐dependent plant natural product methyltransferases are referred to as CCoAOMTs because of their preferred substrate, caffeoyl coenzyme A (CCoA). The enzymes are encoded by a small family of genes, some of which with a proven role in lignin monomer biosynthesis. In Arabidopsis thaliana individual members of this gene family are temporally and spatially regulated. The gene At1g67990 is specifically expressed in flower buds, and is not detected in any other organ, such as roots, leaves or stems. Several lines of evidence indicate that the At1g67990 transcript is located in the flower buds, whereas the corresponding CCoAOMT‐like protein, termed AtTSM1, is located exclusively in the tapetum of developing stamen. Flowers of At1g67990 RNAi‐suppressed plants are characterized by a distinct flower chemotype with severely reduced levels of the N  ′,N  ′′‐ bis‐(5‐hydroxyferuloyl)‐N  ′′′‐sinapoylspermidine compensated for by N1 ,N5 ,N10 ‐tris‐(5‐hydroxyferuloyl)spermidine derivative, which is characterized by the lack of a single methyl group in the sinapoyl moiety. This severe change is consistent with the observed product profile of AtTSM1 for aromatic phenylpropanoids. Heterologous expression of the recombinant protein shows the highest activity towards a series of caffeic acid esters, but 5‐hydroxyferuloyl spermidine conjugates are also accepted substrates. The in vitro substrate specificity and the in vivo RNAi‐mediated suppression data of the corresponding gene suggest a role of this cation‐dependent CCoAOMT‐like protein in the stamen/pollen development of A. thaliana .

Stenzel, I.; Hause, B.; Maucher, H.; Pitzschke, A.; Miersch, O.; Ziegler, J.; Ryan, C. A.; Wasternack, C.; Allene oxide cyclase dependence of the wound response and vascular bundle-specific generation of jasmonates in tomato - amplification in wound signalling Plant J. 33, 577-589, (2003) DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-313X.2003.01647.x

The allene oxide cyclase (AOC)‐catalyzed step in jasmonate (JA) biosynthesis is important in the wound response of tomato. As shown by treatments with systemin and its inactive analog, and by analysis of 35S::prosysteminsense and 35S::prosysteminantisense plants, the AOC seems to be activated by systemin (and JA) leading to elevated formation of JA. Data are presented on the local wound response following activation of AOC and generation of JA, both in vascular bundles. The tissue‐specific occurrence of AOC protein and generation of JA is kept upon wounding or other stresses, but is compromised in 35S::AOCsense plants, whereas 35S::AOCantisense plants exhibited residual AOC expression, a less than 10% rise in JA, and no detectable expression of wound response genes. The (i) activation of systemin‐dependent AOC and JA biosynthesis occurring only upon substrate generation, (ii) the tissue‐specific occurrence of AOC in vascular bundles, where the prosystemin gene is expressed, and (iii) the tissue‐specific generation of JA suggest an amplification in the wound response of tomato leaves allowing local and rapid defense responses.

Maucher, H.; Hause, B.; Feussner, I.; Ziegler, J.; Wasternack, C.; Allene oxide synthases of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Salome): tissue specific regulation in seedling development Plant J. 21, 199-213, (2000) DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-313x.2000.00669.x

Allene oxide synthase (AOS) is the first enzyme in the lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway which leads to formation of jasmonic acid (JA). Two full‐length cDNAs of AOS designated as AOS1 and AOS2, respectively, were isolated from barley (H. vulgare cv. Salome) leaves, which represent the first AOS clones from a monocotyledonous species. For AOS1, the open reading frame encompasses 1461 bp encoding a polypeptide of 487 amino acids with calculated molecular mass of 53.4 kDa and an isoelectric point of 9.3, whereas the corresponding data of AOS2 are 1443 bp, 480 amino acids, 52.7 kDa and 7.9. Southern blot analysis revealed at least two genes. Despite the lack of a putative chloroplast signal peptide in both sequences, the protein co‐purified with chloroplasts and was localized within chloroplasts by immunocytochemical analysis. The barley AOSs, expressed in bacteria as active enzymes, catalyze the dehydration of LOX‐derived 9‐ as well as 13‐hydroperoxides of polyenoic fatty acids to the unstable allene oxides. In leaves, AOS mRNA accumulated upon treatment with jasmonates, octadecanoids and metabolizable carbohydrates, but not upon floating on abscisic acid, NaCl, Na‐salicylate or infection with powdery mildew. In developing seedlings, AOS mRNA strongly accumulated in the scutellar nodule, but less in the leaf base. Both tissues exhibited elevated JA levels. In situ hybridizations revealed the preferential occurrence of AOS mRNA in parenchymatic cells surrounding the vascular bundles of the scutellar nodule and in the young convoluted leaves as well as within the first internode. The properties of both barley AOSs, their up‐regulation of their mRNAs and their tissue specific expression suggest a role during seedling development and jasmonate biosynthesis.

Hause, B.; Stenzel, I.; Miersch, O.; Maucher, H.; Kramell, R.; Ziegler, J.; Wasternack, C.; Tissue-specific oxylipin signature of tomato flowers: allene oxide cyclase is highly expressed in distinct flower organs and vascular bundles Plant J. 24, 113-126, (2000) DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-313x.2000.00861.x

A crucial step in the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid (JA) is the formation of its correct stereoisomeric precursor, cis (+)12‐oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA). This step is catalysed by allene oxide cyclase (AOC), which has been recently cloned from tomato . In stems, young leaves and young flowers, AOC mRNA accumulates to a low level , contrasting with a high accumulation in flower buds, flower stalks and roots. The high levels of AOC mRNA and AOC protein in distinct flower organs correlate with high AOC activity, and with elevated levels of JA, OPDA and JA isoleucine conjugate. These compounds accumulate in flowers to levels of about 20 nmol g−1 fresh weight, which is two orders of magnitude higher than in leaves. In pistils, the level of OPDA is much higher than that of JA, whereas in flower stalks, the level of JA exceeds that of OPDA. In other flower tissues, the ratios among JA, OPDA and JA isoleucine conjugate differ remarkably, suggesting a tissue‐specific oxylipin signature. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed the specific occurrence of the AOC protein in ovules, the transmission tissue of the style and in vascular bundles of receptacles, flower stalks, stems, petioles and roots. Based on the tissue‐specific AOC expression and formation of JA, OPDA and JA amino acid conjugates, a possible role for these compounds in flower development is discussed in terms of their effect on sink–source relationships and plant defence reactions. Furthermore, the AOC expression in vascular bundles might play a role in the systemin‐mediated wound response of tomato.

Binarová, P.; Hause, B.; Doležel, J.; Dráber, P.; Association of γ-tubulin with kinetochore/centromeric region of plant chromosomes Plant J. 14, 751-757, (1998) DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-313x.1998.00166.x

Monoclonal antibodies raised against a phylogenetically conserved peptide from the C‐terminal domain of γ‐tubulin molecule were used for immunofluorescence detection of γ‐tubulin in acentriolar mitotic spindles of plant cells. The antibodies stained kinetochore fibres along their whole length, including the close vicinity of kinetochores. After microtubule disassembly by the antimicrotubular drugs amiprophos‐methyl, oryzalin and colchicine, γ‐tubulin was found on remnants of kinetochore fibres attached to chromosomes. In cells recovering from the amiprophos‐methyl treatment, γ‐tubulin was localized with the re‐growing kinetochore microtubule fibres nucleated or captured by kinetochore/centromeric regions. On isolated chromosomes, γ‐tubulin co‐localized with α‐tubulin in the kinetochore/centromeric region. The data presented suggest that in acentriolar higher plant cells γ‐tubulin might be directly or indirectly involved in modulation and/or stabilization of kinetochore–microtubule interactions.
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