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Vandenborre, G.; Miersch, O.; Hause, B.; Smagghe, G.; Wasternack, C.; Van Damme, E. J.; Spodoptera littoralis-Induced Lectin Expression in Tobacco Plant Cell Physiol. 50, 1142-1155, (2009) DOI: 10.1093/pcp/pcp065

The induced defense response in plants towards herbivores is mainly regulated by jasmonates and leads to the accumulation of so-called jasmonate-induced proteins. Recently, a jasmonate (JA) inducible lectin called Nicotiana tabacum agglutinin or NICTABA was discovered in tobacco (N. tabacum cv Samsun) leaves. Tobacco plants also accumulate the lectin after insect attack by caterpillars. To study the functional role of NICTABA, the accumulation of the JA precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA), JA as well as different JA metabolites were analyzed in tobacco leaves after herbivory by larvae of the cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) and correlated with NICTABA accumulation. It was shown that OPDA, JA as well as its methyl ester can trigger NICTABA accumulation. However, hydroxylation of JA and its subsequent sulfation and glucosylation results in inactive compounds that have lost the capacity to induce NICTABA gene expression. The expression profile of NICTABA after caterpillar feeding was recorded in local as well as in systemic leaves, and compared to the expression of several genes encoding defense proteins, and genes encoding a tobacco systemin and the allene oxide cyclase, an enzyme in JA biosynthesis. Furthermore, the accumulation of NICTABA was quanti-fied after S. littoralis herbivory and immunofluorescence microscopy was used to study the localization of NICTABA in the tobacco leaf.

Hause, B.; Hause, G.; Kutter, C.; Miersch, O.; Wasternack, C.; Enzymes of Jasmonate Biosynthesis Occur in Tomato Sieve Elements Plant Cell Physiol. 44, 643-648, (2003) DOI: 10.1093/pcp/pcg072

The allene oxide cyclase (AOC) is a plastid-located enzyme in the biosynthesis of the signaling compound jasmonic acid (JA). In tomato, AOC occurs specifically in ovules and vascular bundles [Hause et al. (2000)PlantJ. 24; 113]. Immunocytological analysis of longitudinal sections of petioles and flower stalks revealed the occurrence of AOC in companion cells (CC) and sieve elements (SE). Electron microscopic analysis led to the conclusion that the AOC-containing structures of SE are plastids. AOC was not detected in SE of 35S::AOCantisense plants. The enzymes preceding AOC in JA biosynthesis, the allene oxide synthase (AOS) and the lipoxygenase, were also detected in SE. In situ hybridization showed that the SE are free of AOC-mRNA suggesting AOC protein traffic from CC to SE via plasmodesmata. A control by in situ hybridization of AOS mRNA coding for a protein with a size above the exclusion limit of plasmodesmata indicated mRNA in CC and SE. The data suggest that SE carry the capacity to form 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, the unique precursor of JA. Together with preferential generation of JA in vascular bundles [Stenzel et al. (2003)Plant J. 33: 577], the data support a role of JA in systemic wound signaling.
Bücher und Buchkapitel

Wasternack, C.; Hause, B.; Jasmonates and octadecanoids: Signals in plant stress responses and development Prog. Nucleic Acid Res. Mol. Biol. 72, 165-221, (2002) DOI: 10.1016/S0079-6603(02)72070-9

Plants are sessile organisms. Consequently they have to adapt constantly to fluctuations in the environment. Some of these changes involve essential factors such as nutrients, light, and water. Plants have evolved independent systems to sense nutrients such as phosphate and nitrogen. However, many of the environmental factors may reach levels which represent stress for the plant. The fluctuations can range between moderate and unfavorable, and the factors can be of biotic or abiotic origin. Among the biotic factors influencing plant life are pathogens and herbivores. In case of bacteria and fungi, symbiotic interactions such as nitrogen-fixating nodules and mycorrhiza, respectively, may be established. In case of insects, a tritrophic interaction of herbivores, carnivores, and plants may occur mutualistically or parasitically. Among the numerous abiotic factors are low temperature, frost, heat, high light conditions, ultraviolet light, darkness, oxidation stress, hypoxia, wind, touch, nutrient imbalance, salt stress, osmotic adjustment, water deficit, and desiccation.In the last decade jasmonates were recognized as being signals in plant responses to most of these biotic and abiotic factors. Signaling via jasmonates was found to occur intracellularly, and systemically as well as interorganismically. Jasmonates are a group of ubiquitously occurring plant growth regulators originally found as the major constituents in the etheric oil of jasmine, and were first suggested to play a role in senescence due to a strong senescence-promoting effect. Subsequently, numerous developmental processes were described in which jasmonates exhibited hormone-like properties. Recent knowledge is reviewed here on jasmonates and their precursors, the octadecanoids. After discussing occurrence and biosynthesis, emphasis is placed upon the signal transduction pathways in plant stress responses in which jasmonates act a signal. Finally, examples are described on the role of jasmonates in developmental processes.

Chen, D. L.; Delatorre, C. A.; Bakker, A.; Abel, S.; Conditional identification of phosphate-starvation-response mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana Planta 211, 13-22, (2000) DOI: 10.1007/s004250000271

Plants have evolved elaborate metabolic and developmental adaptations to low phosphorus availability. Biochemical responses to phosphate limitation include increased production and secretion of phosphate-acquisition proteins such as nucleases, acid phosphatases, and high-affinity phosphate transporters. However, the signal transduction pathways that sense phosphate availability and integrate the phosphate-starvation response in plants are unknown. We have devised a screen for conditional mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. to dissect signaling of phosphate limitation. Our genetic screen is based on the facultative ability of wild-type Arabidopsis plants to metabolize exogenous DNA when inorganic phosphate is limiting. After screening 50,000 M2 seedlings, we isolated 22 confirmed mutant lines that showed severely impaired growth on medium containing DNA as the only source of phosphorus, but which recovered on medium containing soluble inorganic phosphate. Characterization of nine such mutant lines demonstrated an inability to utilize either DNA or RNA. One mutant line, psr1 (phosphate starvation response), had significantly reduced activities of phosphate-starvation-inducible isoforms of ribonuclease and acid phosphatase under phosphate-limiting conditions. The data suggest that a subset of the selected mutations impairs the expression of more than one phosphate-starvation-inducible enzyme required for utilization of exogenous nucleic acids, and may thus affect regulatory components of a Pi starvation response pathway in higher plants.

Görschen, E.; Dunaeva, M.; Hause, B.; Reeh, I.; Wasternack, C.; Parthier, B.; Expression of the ribosome-inactivating protein JIP60 from barley in transgenic tobacco leads to an abnormal phenotype and alterations on the level of translation Planta 202, 470-478, (1997) DOI: 10.1007/s004250050151

In this paper we report the in-planta activity of the ribosome-inactivating protein JIP60, a 60-kDa jasmonate-induced protein from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants. All plants expressing the complete JIP60 cDNA under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter exhibited conspicuous and similar phenotypic alterations, such as slower growth, shorter internodes, lanceolate leaves, reduced root development, and premature senescence of leaves. Microscopic inspection of developing leaves showed a loss of residual meristems and higher degree of vacuolation of mesophyll cells as compared to the wild type. When probed with an antiserum which was immunoreactive against both the N- and the C-terminal half of JIP60, a polypeptide with a molecular mass of about 30 kDa, most probably a processed JIP60 product, could be detected. Phenotypic alterations could be correlated with the differences in the detectable amount of the JIP60 mRNA and processed JIP60 protein. The protein biosynthesis of the transformants was characterized by an increased polysome/monosome ratio but a decreased in-vivo translation activity. These findings suggest that JIP60 perturbs the translation machinery in planta. An immunohistological analysis using the JIP60 antiserum indicated that the immunoreactive polypeptide(s) are located mainly in the nucleus of transgenic tobacco leaf cells and to a minor extent in the cytoplasm.

Hause, B.; Demus, U.; Teichmann, C.; Parthier, B.; Wasternack, C.; Developmental and Tissue-Specific Expression of JIP-23, a Jasmonate-Inducible Protein of Barley Plant Cell Physiol. 37, 641-649, (1996) DOI: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.pcp.a028993

Developmental expression of a 23 kDa jasmonate-induced protein (JIP-23) of barley leaves (Hordeum vulgare cv. Salome) was studied by measuring the time-dependent accumulation of transcript and protein during germination. Tissue-specific expression of JIP-23 was analyzed immunocytochemically and by in situ hybridizations, respectively. During seed germination JIP-23 mRNA was found to accumulate transiently with a maximum at 32 h, whereas the protein was steadily detectable after the onset of expression. The occurrence of new isoforms of JIP-23 during germination in comparison to jasmonate-treated leaves suggests, that the JIP-23 gene family of barley is able to express different subsets of isoforms dependent on the developmental stage.JIP-23 and its transcript were found mainly in the scutellum, the scutellar nodule and in lower parts of the primary leaf of 6 days old seedlings. All these tissues exhibited high levels of endogenous jasmonates. In situ hybridization revealed specific accumulation of JIP-23 mRNA in companion cells of the phloem in the nodule plate of the scutellum. In accordance with that, JIP-23 was detected immunocytochemically in phloem cells of the root as well as of the scutellar nodule and in parenchymatic cells of the scutellum. The cell type-specific occurrence of JIP-23 was restricted to cells, which are known to be highly stressed osmotically by active solute transport. This observation suggests, that the expression of this protein might be a response to osmotic stress during development.

Feussner, I.; Hause, B.; Nellen, A.; Wasternack, C.; Kindl, H.; Lipid-body lipoxygenase is expressed in cotyledons during germination prior to other lipoxygenase forms Planta 198, 288-293, (1996) DOI: 10.1007/BF00206255

Lipid bodies are degraded during germination. Whereas some proteins, e.g. oleosins, are synthesized during the formation of lipid bodies of maturating seeds, a new set of proteins, including a specific form of lipoxygenase (LOX; EC, is detectable in lipid bodies during the stage of fat degradation in seed germination. In cotyledons of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings at day 4 of germination, the most conspicuous staining with anti-LOX antibodies was observed in the cytosol. At very early stages of germination, however, the LOX form present in large amounts and synthesized preferentially was the lipid-body LOX. This was demonstrated by immunocytochemical staining of cotyledons from 1-h and 24-h-old seedlings: the immunodecoration of sections of 24-h-old seedlings with anti-LOX antiserum showed label exclusively correlated with lipid bodies of around 3 μm in diameter. In accordance, the profile of LOX protein isolated from lipid bodies during various stages of germination showed a maximum at day 1. By measuring biosynthesis of the protein in vivo we demonstrated that the highest rates of synthesis of lipid-body LOX occurred at day 1 of germination. The early and selective appearance of a LOX form associated with lipid bodies at this stage of development is discussed.
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