Otto, M.; Naumann, C.; Brandt, W.; Wasternack, C.; Hause, B.; Activity Regulation by Heteromerization of Arabidopsis Allene Oxide Cyclase Family Members Plants 5, 3, (2016) DOI: 10.3390/plants5010003
Jasmonates (JAs) are lipid-derived signals in plant stress responses and development. A crucial step in JA biosynthesis is catalyzed by allene oxide cyclase (AOC). Four genes encoding functional AOCs (AOC1, AOC2, AOC3 and AOC4) have been characterized for Arabidopsis thaliana in terms of organ- and tissue-specific expression, mutant phenotypes, promoter activities and initial in vivo protein interaction studies suggesting functional redundancy and diversification, including first hints at enzyme activity control by protein-protein interaction. Here, these analyses were extended by detailed analysis of recombinant proteins produced in Escherichia coli. Treatment of purified AOC2 with SDS at different temperatures, chemical cross-linking experiments and protein structure analysis by molecular modelling approaches were performed. Several salt bridges between monomers and a hydrophobic core within the AOC2 trimer were identified and functionally proven by site-directed mutagenesis. The data obtained showed that AOC2 acts as a trimer. Finally, AOC activity was determined in heteromers formed by pairwise combinations of the four AOC isoforms. The highest activities were found for heteromers containing AOC4 + AOC1 and AOC4 + AOC2, respectively. All data are in line with an enzyme activity control of all four AOCs by heteromerization, thereby supporting a putative fine-tuning in JA formation by various regulatory principles.
Wasternack, C.; Stenzel, I.; Hause, B.; Hause, G.; Kutter, C.; Maucher, H.; Neumerkel, J.; Feussner, I.; Miersch, O.; The wound response in tomato – Role of jasmonic acid J. Plant Physiol. 163, 297-306, (2006) DOI: 10.1016/j.jplph.2005.10.014
Plants respond to mechanical wounding or herbivore attack with a complex scenario of sequential, antagonistic or synergistic action of different signals leading to defense gene expression. Tomato plants were used as a model system since the peptide systemin and the lipid-derived jasmonic acid (JA) were recognized as essential signals in wound-induced gene expression. In this review recent data are discussed with emphasis on wound-signaling in tomato. The following aspects are covered: (i) systemin signaling, (ii) JA biosynthesis and action, (iii) orchestration of various signals such as JA, H2O2, NO, and salicylate, (iv) local and systemic response, and (v) amplification in wound signaling. The common occurrence of JA biosynthesis and systemin generation in the vascular bundles suggest JA as the systemic signal. Grafting experiments with JA-deficient, JA-insensitive and systemin-insensitive mutants strongly support this assumption.
Nibbe, M.; Hilpert, B.; Wasternack, C.; Miersch, O.; Apel, K.; Cell death and salicylate- and jasmonate-dependent stress responses in Arabidopsis are controlled by single cet genes Planta 216, 120-128, (2002) DOI: 10.1007/s00425-002-0907-1
The jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent regulation of the Thi2.1 gene had previously been exploited for setting up a genetic screen for the isolation of signal transduction mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. that constitutively express the thionin gene. Several cet mutants had been isolated which showed a constitutive expression of the thionin gene. These cet mutants, except for one, also showed spontaneous leaf cell necrosis and were up-regulated in the expression of the PR1 gene, reactions often associated with the systemic acquired resistance (SAR) pathway. Four of these cet mutants, cet1, cet2, cet3 and cet4.1 were crossed with the fad triple and coi1 mutants that are blocked at two steps within the JA-dependent signaling pathway, and with transgenic NahG plants that are deficient in salicylic acid (SA) and are unable to activate SAR. Analysis of the various double-mutant lines revealed that the four cet genes act within a signaling cascade at or prior to branch points from which not only JA-dependent signals but also SA-dependent signaling and cell death pathways diverge.
Hause, B.; Vörös, K.; Kogel, K.-H.; Besser, K.; Wasternack, C.; A Jasmonate-responsive Lipoxygenase of Barley Leaves is Induced by Plant Activators but not by Pathogens J. Plant Physiol. 154, 459-462, (1999) DOI: 10.1016/S0176-1617(99)80283-1
Using the recently isolated eDNA clone LOX2 : Hv : 1 which codes for the most abundant jasmonateinducible lipoxygenase (LOX) in barley leaves (Vörös et al., 1998), we analysed the capability of different activators of systemic activated resistance (SAR) to induce the expression of that LOX. Upon treatment of barley leaves with salicylate, 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid and benzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester, all these compounds were able to induce the expression of the LOX2 : Hv : 1 gene, whereas upon infection with the powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei) mRNA accumulation was not detectable in compatible or in incompatible interactions. The induction of the LOX2 : Hv : 1 protein by SAR activators and the expression of different sets of genes induced by jasmonate and salicylate, respectively, are discussed in relation to defense responses against pathogenic fungi.
Wasternack, C.; Ortel, B.; Miersch, O.; Kramell, R.; Beale, M.; Greulich, F.; Feussner, I.; Hause, B.; Krumm, T.; Boland, W.; Parthier, B.; Diversity in octadecanoid-induced gene expression of tomato J. Plant Physiol. 152, 345-352, (1998) DOI: 10.1016/S0176-1617(98)80149-1
In tomato plants wounding leads to up-regulation of various plant defense genes via jasmonates (Ryan, 1992; Bergey et al., 1996). Using this model system of jasmonic acid (JA) signalling, we analyzed activity of octadecanoids to express JA-responsive genes. Leaf treatments were performed with naturally occurring octadecanoids and their molecular mimics such as coronatine or indanone conjugates. JA responses were recorded in terms of up- or down-regulation of various genes by analyzing transcript accumulation, and at least partially in vitro translation products and polypeptide pattern of leaf extracts. The data suggest: (i) 12-Oxo-phytodienoic acid and other intermediates of the octadecanoid pathway has to be ß-oxidized to give a JA response, (ii) Octadecanoids which can not be ß-oxidized are inactive, (iii) JA, its methyl ester (JM), and its amino acid conjugates are most active signals in tomato leaves leading to up regulation of mainly wound-inducible genes and down-regulation of mainly <house-keeping> genes, (iv) Some compounds carrying a JA/JM- or JA amino acid conjugate-like structure induce/repress only a subset of genes suggesting diversity of JA signalling.
Ratajczak, R.; Feussner, I.; Hause, B.; Böhm, A.; Parthier, B.; Wasternack, C.; Alteration of V-type H+-ATPase during methyljasmonate-induced senescence in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Salome) J. Plant Physiol. 152, 199-206, (1998) DOI: 10.1016/S0176-1617(98)80133-8
In barley leaves, the application of (−)-jasmonic acid or its methyl ester (JAME) induces a senescencelike phenotype. This is accompanied by the synthesis of abundant proteins, so-called jasmonate-induced proteins (JlPs). Here, we show that modifications of vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) subunits are jasmo-nate inducible. Using immunofluorescence analysis, we demonstrate that V-ATPase of barley leaves is exclusively located at the tonoplast also upon JAME treatment. Total ATP-hydrolysis activity of microsomal fractions increased by a factor of 10 during 72 h of JAME-treatment, while Bafilomycin Ai-sensitive ATP-hydrolysis activity, which is usually referred to V-ATPase activity, increased by a factor of about 2 in tono-plast-enriched membrane fractions. Moreover, due to JAME treatment there was a pronounced increase in ATP-hydrolysis activity at pH 6.2. This activity was not affected by inhibitors of P-, F-, or V-ATPases. However, biochemical analysis of partially purified V-ATPase suggests, that this activity might be due at least in part to the V-ATPase. JAME-treatment seems to change biochemical properties of the V-ATPase, i.e. a shift of the pH optimum of activity to a more acidic pH and a decrease in Bafilomycin A1 sensitivity. This is accompanied by the appearance of several additional forms of V-ATPase subunits which might represent either different isoforms or post-translationally modified proteins. We suggest that these changes in properties of the V-ATPase, which is involved in house-keeping and stress responses, may be due to JAME-induced senescence to overcome concomitant changes of the vacuolar membrane.
Hause, B.; Kogel, K.-H.; Parthier, B.; Wasternack, C.; In barley leaf cells, jasmonates do not act as a signal during compatible or incompatible interactions with the powdery mildew fungus (Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei) J. Plant Physiol. 150, 127-132, (1997) DOI: 10.1016/S0176-1617(97)80191-5
We have studied a possible function of jasmonates as mediators in the host-pathogen interaction of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) with the powdery mildew fungus Egh (Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei). Previous findings from whole-leaf extracts demonstrated that (i) extracts from infected barley leaves did not contain enhanced levels of jasmonates, (ii) transcripts of jasmonate-inducible genes were not expressed upon infection, and (iii) exogenous application of jasmonates did not induce resistance to Egh (Kogel et al., 1995). Nevertheless, the question arises whether or not jasmonates are involved in the interaction of barley with the powdery mildew fungus at the local site of infection. Using an immunocytological approach the analysis of leaf cross-sections from a susceptible barley cultivar and its near-isogenic mlo5-resistant line revealed no accumulation of JIP-23, the most abundant jasmonate inducible protein, neither in epidermal cells attacked by the pathogen nor in adjacent mesophyll cells. As a positive control, cross-sections from methyl jasmonate-treated leaf segments showed a strong signal for JIP-23 accumulation. Because the presence of the jasmonate-inducible protein is highly indicative for an already low threshold level of endogenous jasmonate (Lehmann et al., 1995), the lack of JIP-23 accumulation at the sites of attempted fungal infection clearly demonstrates the absence of enhanced levels of jasmonates. This excludes even a local rise of jasmonate confined to those single cells penetrated (Mlo genotype) or attacked (mlo5 genotype) by the fungus.
Görschen, E.; Dunaeva, M.; Hause, B.; Reeh, I.; Wasternack, C.; Parthier, B.; Expression of the ribosome-inactivating protein JIP60 from barley in transgenic tobacco leads to an abnormal phenotype and alterations on the level of translation Planta 202, 470-478, (1997) DOI: 10.1007/s004250050151
In this paper we report the in-planta activity of the ribosome-inactivating protein JIP60, a 60-kDa jasmonate-induced protein from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants. All plants expressing the complete JIP60 cDNA under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter exhibited conspicuous and similar phenotypic alterations, such as slower growth, shorter internodes, lanceolate leaves, reduced root development, and premature senescence of leaves. Microscopic inspection of developing leaves showed a loss of residual meristems and higher degree of vacuolation of mesophyll cells as compared to the wild type. When probed with an antiserum which was immunoreactive against both the N- and the C-terminal half of JIP60, a polypeptide with a molecular mass of about 30 kDa, most probably a processed JIP60 product, could be detected. Phenotypic alterations could be correlated with the differences in the detectable amount of the JIP60 mRNA and processed JIP60 protein. The protein biosynthesis of the transformants was characterized by an increased polysome/monosome ratio but a decreased in-vivo translation activity. These findings suggest that JIP60 perturbs the translation machinery in planta. An immunohistological analysis using the JIP60 antiserum indicated that the immunoreactive polypeptide(s) are located mainly in the nucleus of transgenic tobacco leaf cells and to a minor extent in the cytoplasm.
Feussner, I.; Hause, B.; Nellen, A.; Wasternack, C.; Kindl, H.; Lipid-body lipoxygenase is expressed in cotyledons during germination prior to other lipoxygenase forms Planta 198, 288-293, (1996) DOI: 10.1007/BF00206255
Lipid bodies are degraded during germination. Whereas some proteins, e.g. oleosins, are synthesized during the formation of lipid bodies of maturating seeds, a new set of proteins, including a specific form of lipoxygenase (LOX; EC 18.104.22.168), is detectable in lipid bodies during the stage of fat degradation in seed germination. In cotyledons of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings at day 4 of germination, the most conspicuous staining with anti-LOX antibodies was observed in the cytosol. At very early stages of germination, however, the LOX form present in large amounts and synthesized preferentially was the lipid-body LOX. This was demonstrated by immunocytochemical staining of cotyledons from 1-h and 24-h-old seedlings: the immunodecoration of sections of 24-h-old seedlings with anti-LOX antiserum showed label exclusively correlated with lipid bodies of around 3 μm in diameter. In accordance, the profile of LOX protein isolated from lipid bodies during various stages of germination showed a maximum at day 1. By measuring biosynthesis of the protein in vivo we demonstrated that the highest rates of synthesis of lipid-body LOX occurred at day 1 of germination. The early and selective appearance of a LOX form associated with lipid bodies at this stage of development is discussed.