Hause, B.; Wasternack, C.; Strack, D.; Jasmonates in stress responses and development Phytochemistry 70, 1483-1484, (2009) DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2009.07.004
Stenzel, I.; Hause, B.; Proels, R.; Miersch, O.; Oka, M.; Roitsch, T.; Wasternack, C.; The AOC promoter of tomato is regulated by developmental and environmental stimuli Phytochemistry 69, 1859-1869, (2008) DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2008.03.007
The allene oxide cyclase (AOC) catalyzes the formation of cis-(+)-12-oxophytodienoic acid, an intermediate in jasmonate biosynthesis and is encoded by a single copy gene in tomato. The full length AOC promoter isolated by genome walk contains 3600 bp. Transgenic tomato lines carrying a 1000 bp promoter fragment and the full length promoter, respectively, in front of the β-glucuronidase (GUS)-encoding uidA gene and several tobacco lines carrying the full length tomato AOC promoter before GUS were used to record organ- and tissue-specific promoter activities during development and in response to various stimuli. High promoter activities corresponding to immunocytochemically detected occurrence of the AOC protein were found in seeds and young seedlings and were confined to the root tip, hypocotyl and cotyledons of 3-d-old seedlings. In 10-d-old seedlings promoter activity appeared preferentially in the elongation zone. Fully developed tomato leaves were free of AOC promoter activity, but showed high activity upon wounding locally and systemically or upon treatment with JA, systemin or glucose. Tomato flowers showed high AOC promoter activities in ovules, sepals, anthers and pollen. Most of the promoter activity patterns found in tomato with the 1000 bp promoter fragment were also detected with the full length tomato AOC promoter in tobacco during development or in response to various stimuli. The data support a spatial and temporal regulation of JA biosynthesis during development and in response to environmental stimuli.
Sharma, V. K.; Monostori, T.; Göbel, C.; Hänsch, R.; Bittner, F.; Wasternack, C.; Feussner, I.; Mendel, R. R.; Hause, B.; Schulze, J.; Transgenic barley plants overexpressing a 13-lipoxygenase to modify oxylipin signature Phytochemistry 67, 264-276, (2006) DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2005.11.009
Three chimeric gene constructs were designed comprising the full length cDNA of a lipoxygenase (LOX) from barley (LOX2:Hv:1) including its chloroplast targeting sequence (cTP) under control of either (1) CaMV35S- or (2) polyubiquitin-1-promoter, whereas the third plasmid contains 35S promoter and the cDNA without cTP. Transgenic barley plants overexpressing LOX2:Hv:1 were generated by biolistics of scutella from immature embryos. Transformation frequency for 35S::LOX with or without cTP was in a range known for barley particle bombardment, whereas for Ubi::cTP-LOX no transgenic plants were detected. In general, a high number of green plantlets selected on bialaphos became yellow and finally died either in vitro or after potting. All transgenic plants obtained were phenotypically indistinguishable from wild type plants and all of them set seeds. The corresponding protein (LOX-100) in transgenic T0 and T1 plants accumulated constitutively to similar levels as in the jasmonic acid methyl ester (JAME)-treated wild type plants. Moreover, LOX-100 was clearly detectable immunocytochemically within the chloroplasts of untreated T0 plants containing the LOX-100-cDNA with the chloroplast target sequence. In contrast, an exclusive localization of LOX-100 in the cytoplasm was detectable when the target sequence was removed. In comparison to sorbitol-treated wild type leaves, analysis of oxylipin profiles in T2 progenies showed higher levels of jasmonic acid (JA) for those lines that displayed elevated levels of LOX-100 in the chloroplasts and for those lines that harboured LOX-100 in the cytoplasm, respectively. The studies demonstrate for the first time the constitutive overexpression of a cDNA coding for a 13-LOX in a monocotyledonous species and indicate a link between the occurrence of LOX-100 and senescence.
Stumpe, M.; Carsjens, J.-G.; Stenzel, I.; Göbel, C.; Lang, I.; Pawlowski, K.; Hause, B.; Feussner, I.; Lipid metabolism in arbuscular mycorrhizal roots of Medicago truncatula Phytochemistry 66, 781-791, (2005) DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2005.01.020
The peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, common to all eukaryotes, is mostly catalyzed by members of the lipoxygenase enzyme family of non-heme iron containing dioxygenases. Lipoxygenase products can be metabolized further in the oxylipin pathway by several groups of CYP74 enzymes. One prominent oxylipin is jasmonic acid (JA), a product of the 13-allene oxide synthase branch of the pathway and known as signaling substance that plays a role in vegetative and propagative plant development as well as in plant responses to wounding and pathogen attack. In barley roots, JA level increases upon colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Apart from this first result regarding JA, no information is available on the relevance of lipidperoxide metabolism in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Thus we analyzed fatty acid and lipidperoxide patterns in roots of Medicago truncatula during mycorrhizal colonization. Levels of fungus-specific fatty acids as well as palmitic acid (16:0) and oleic acid (18:1 n − 9) were increased in mycorrhizal roots. Thus the degree of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of roots can be estimated via analysis of fungal specific esterified fatty acids. Otherwise, no significant changes were found in the profiles of esterified and free fatty acids. The 9- and 13-LOX products of linoleic and α-linolenic acid were present in all root samples, but did not show significant differences between mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal roots, except JA which showed elevated levels in mycorrhizal roots. In both types of roots levels of 13-LOX products were higher than those of 9-LOX products. In addition, three cDNAs encoding CYP74 enzymes, two 9/13-hydroperoxide lyases and a 13-allene oxide synthase, were isolated and characterized. The transcript accumulation of these three genes, however, was not increased in mycorrhizal roots of M. truncatula.
Miersch, O.; Weichert, H.; Stenzel, I.; Hause, B.; Maucher, H.; Feussner, I.; Wasternack, C.; Constitutive overexpression of allene oxide cyclase in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Lukullus) elevates levels of some jasmonates and octadecanoids in flower organs but not in leaves Phytochemistry 65, 847-856, (2004) DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2004.01.016
The allene oxide cyclase (AOC), an enzyme in jasmonate biosynthesis, occurs in vascular bundles and ovules of tomato flowers which exhibit a tissue-specific oxylipin signature (Plant J. 24, 113-126, 2000). Constitutive overexpression of the AOC did not led to altered levels of jasmonates in leaves, but these levels increased upon wounding or other stresses suggesting regulation of jasmonate biosynthesis by substrate availability (Plant J. 33, 577-589, 2003). Here, we show dramatic changes in levels of jasmonic acid (JA), of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), their methyl esters (JAME, OPDAME), and of dinor-OPDA in most flower organs upon constitutive overexpression of AOC. Beside a dominant occurrence of OPDAME and JA in most flower organs, the ratio among the various compounds was altered differentially in the organs of transgenic flowers, e.g. OPDAME increased up to 53-fold in stamen, and JA increased about 51-fold in buds and 7.5-fold in sepals. The increase in jasmonates and octadecanoids was accompanied by decreased levels of free lipid hydro(per)oxy compounds. Except for 16:2, the AOC overexpression led to a significant increase in free but not esterified polyunsaturated fatty acids in all flower organs. The data suggest different regulation of JA biosynthesis in leaves and flowers of tomato.Constitutive overexpression of the AOC increases in all flower organs levels of some jasmonates and octadecanoids, alters the ratios among the compounds, decreases levels of free lipid hydro(per)oxy compounds and increases levels of free but not of esterified polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Maucher, H.; Stenzel, I.; Miersch, O.; Stein, N.; Prasad, M.; Zierold, U.; Schweizer, P.; Dorer, C.; Hause, B.; Wasternack, C.; The allene oxide cyclase of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)—cloning and organ-specific expression Phytochemistry 65, 801-811, (2004) DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2004.01.009
The naturally occurring enantiomer of the various octadecanoids and jasmonates is established in a biosynthetic step catalyzed by the allene oxide cyclase (AOC). The AOC converts an allene oxide formed by an allene oxide synthase (AOS). Here, we show cloning and characterization of cDNAs encoding the AOC and a third AOS, respectively, in addition to the two AOSs previously published (Plant J. 21, 199–213, 2000). The ORF of the AOC-cDNA of 717 bp codes for a protein of 238 amino acid residues carrying a putative chloroplast target sequence. Overexpression without chloroplast target sequence revealed AOC activity. The AOC was found to be a single copy gene which mapped on chromosome 6H. AOC mRNA accumulation appeared in leaf segments upon treatment with various jasmonates, octadecanoids and ABA or during stress such as treatment with sorbitol or glucose solutions. Infection with powdery mildew activated AOC expression in susceptible and resistant lines of barley which correlated with PR1b expression. Among different tissues of barley seedlings, the scutellar node and leaf base accumulated AOC mRNA preferentially which correlated with accumulation of mRNAs for other biosynthetic enzymes (lipoxygenases, AOSs). AOC mRNA accumulation appeared also abundantly in parts of the root containing the tip and correlated with elevated levels of jasmonates. The data suggest a link of AOC expression and JA formation and support role of JA in stress responses and development of barley.Barley plants contain one allene oxide cyclase and three allene oxide synthases which are up-regulated during seedling development accompanied by elevated levels of jasmonate.
Hause, B.; Stenzel, I.; Miersch, O.; Wasternack, C.; Occurrence of the allene oxide cyclase in different organs and tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana Phytochemistry 64, 971-980, (2003) DOI: 10.1016/S0031-9422(03)00447-3
Occurrence of an essential enzyme in jasmonate (JA) biosynthesis, the allene oxide cyclase, (AOC) was analyzed in different developmental stages and various organs of Arabidopsis thaliana plants by immuno blot analysis and immunocytological approaches. Levels of AOC and of the two preceding enzymes in JA biosynthesis increased during seedling development accompanied by increased levels of JA and 12-oxophytodienoic acid levels after 4 and 8 weeks. Most tissues including all vascular bundles and that of flower buds contain AOC protein. Flowers shortly before opening, however, contain AOC protein preferentially in ovules, stigma cells and vascular bundles, whereas in anthers and pollen AOC could not be detected. The putative roles of AOC and JA in development are discussed.The allene oxide cyclase (AOC) is an important enzyme in jasmonate biosynthesis. Levels and occurrence of AOC in different organs and tissues are altered during development of Arabidopsis thaliana.
Görschen, E.; Dunaeva, M.; Hause, B.; Reeh, I.; Wasternack, C.; Parthier, B.; Expression of the ribosome-inactivating protein JIP60 from barley in transgenic tobacco leads to an abnormal phenotype and alterations on the level of translation Planta 202, 470-478, (1997) DOI: 10.1007/s004250050151
In this paper we report the in-planta activity of the ribosome-inactivating protein JIP60, a 60-kDa jasmonate-induced protein from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants. All plants expressing the complete JIP60 cDNA under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter exhibited conspicuous and similar phenotypic alterations, such as slower growth, shorter internodes, lanceolate leaves, reduced root development, and premature senescence of leaves. Microscopic inspection of developing leaves showed a loss of residual meristems and higher degree of vacuolation of mesophyll cells as compared to the wild type. When probed with an antiserum which was immunoreactive against both the N- and the C-terminal half of JIP60, a polypeptide with a molecular mass of about 30 kDa, most probably a processed JIP60 product, could be detected. Phenotypic alterations could be correlated with the differences in the detectable amount of the JIP60 mRNA and processed JIP60 protein. The protein biosynthesis of the transformants was characterized by an increased polysome/monosome ratio but a decreased in-vivo translation activity. These findings suggest that JIP60 perturbs the translation machinery in planta. An immunohistological analysis using the JIP60 antiserum indicated that the immunoreactive polypeptide(s) are located mainly in the nucleus of transgenic tobacco leaf cells and to a minor extent in the cytoplasm.
Feussner, I.; Hause, B.; Nellen, A.; Wasternack, C.; Kindl, H.; Lipid-body lipoxygenase is expressed in cotyledons during germination prior to other lipoxygenase forms Planta 198, 288-293, (1996) DOI: 10.1007/BF00206255
Lipid bodies are degraded during germination. Whereas some proteins, e.g. oleosins, are synthesized during the formation of lipid bodies of maturating seeds, a new set of proteins, including a specific form of lipoxygenase (LOX; EC 184.108.40.206), is detectable in lipid bodies during the stage of fat degradation in seed germination. In cotyledons of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings at day 4 of germination, the most conspicuous staining with anti-LOX antibodies was observed in the cytosol. At very early stages of germination, however, the LOX form present in large amounts and synthesized preferentially was the lipid-body LOX. This was demonstrated by immunocytochemical staining of cotyledons from 1-h and 24-h-old seedlings: the immunodecoration of sections of 24-h-old seedlings with anti-LOX antiserum showed label exclusively correlated with lipid bodies of around 3 μm in diameter. In accordance, the profile of LOX protein isolated from lipid bodies during various stages of germination showed a maximum at day 1. By measuring biosynthesis of the protein in vivo we demonstrated that the highest rates of synthesis of lipid-body LOX occurred at day 1 of germination. The early and selective appearance of a LOX form associated with lipid bodies at this stage of development is discussed.