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Wasternack, C.; Termination in Jasmonate Signaling by MYC2 and MTBs Trends Plant Sci. 24, 667-669, (2019) DOI: 10.1016/j.tplants.2019.06.001

Jasmonic acid (JA) signaling can be switched off by metabolism of JA. The master regulator MYC2, interacting with MED25, has been shown to be deactivated by the bHLH transcription factors MTB1, MTB2, and MTB3. An autoregulatory negative feedback loop has been proposed for this termination in JA signaling.

Wasternack, C.; New Light on Local and Systemic Wound Signaling Trends Plant Sci. 24, 102-105, (2019) DOI: 10.1016/j.tplants.2018.11.009

Electric signaling and Ca2+ waves were discussed to occur in systemic wound responses. Two new overlapping scenarios were identified: (i) membrane depolarization in two special cell types followed by an increase in systemic cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt), and (ii) glutamate sensed by GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR LIKE proteins and followed by Ca2+-based defense in distal leaves.

Wasternack, C.; Hause, B.; A Bypass in Jasmonate Biosynthesis – the OPR3-independent Formation Trends Plant Sci. 23, 276-279, (2018) DOI: 10.1016/j.tplants.2018.02.011

For the first time in 25 years, a new pathway for biosynthesis of jasmonic acid (JA) has been identified. JA production takes place via 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) including reduction by OPDA reductases (OPRs). A loss-of-function allele, opr3-3, revealed an OPR3-independent pathway converting OPDA to JA.

Feussner, I.; Kühn, H.; Wasternack, C.; Lipoxygenase-dependent degradation of storage lipids Trends Plant Sci. 6, 268-273, (2001) DOI: 10.1016/S1360-1385(01)01950-1

Oilseed germination is characterized by the mobilization of storage lipids as a carbon source for the germinating seedling. In spite of the importance of lipid mobilization, its mechanism is only partially understood. Recent data suggest that a novel degradation mechanism is initiated by a 13-lipoxygenase during germination, using esterified fatty acids specifically as substrates. This 13-lipoxygenase reaction leads to a transient accumulation of ester lipid hydroperoxides in the storage lipids, and the corresponding oxygenated fatty acid moieties are preferentially removed by specific lipases. The free hydroperoxy fatty acids are subsequently reduced to their hydroxy derivatives, which might in turn undergo β-oxidation.

Wasternack, C.; Miersch, O.; Kramell, R.; Hause, B.; Ward, J.; Beale, M.; Boland, W.; Parthier, B.; Feussner, I.; Jasmonic acid: biosynthesis, signal transduction, gene expression Fett/Lipid 100, 139-146, (1998) DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1521-4133(19985)100:4/5<139::AID-LIPI139>3.0.CO;2-5

Jasmonic acid (JA) is an ubiquitously occurring plant growth regulator which functions as a signal of developmentally or environmentally regulated expression of various genes thereby contributing to the defense status of plants [1–5]. The formation of jasmonates in a lipid‐based signalling pathway via octadecanoids seems to be a common principle for many plant species to express wound‐ and stressinduced genes [4, 5].There are various octadecanoid‐derived signals [3]. Among them, jasmonic acid and its amino acid conjugates are most active in barley, supporting arguments that β‐oxidation is an essential step in lipid‐based JA mediated responses. Furthermore, among derivatives of 12‐oxophytodienoic acid (PDA) carrying varying length of the carboxylic acid side‐chain, only those with a straight number of carbon atoms are able to induce JA responsive genes in barley leaves after treatment with these compounds. Barley leaves stressed by treatment with sorbitol solutions exhibit mainly an endogenous rise of JA and JA amino acid conjugates suggesting that both of them are stress signals. Data on organ‐ and tissue‐specific JA‐responsive gene expression will be presented and discussed in terms of “JA as a master switch” among various lipid‐derived signals.

Feussner, I.; Wasternack, C.; Lipoxygenase catalyzed oxygenation of lipids Fett/Lipid 100, 146-152, (1998) DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1521-4133(19985)100:4/5<146::AID-LIPI146>3.0.CO;2-D

Lipoxygenases (LOXs) and other LOX pathway enzymes are potentially able to form a large set of compounds being of commercial interest. Among them are conjugated dienic acids, jasmonates, and volatile aldehydes. Additionally, fatty acid hydroperoxides, formed by LOX, can serve as precursors for further transformation by either enzymes of the so‐called LOX pathway or by chemical reactions. In the case of linoleic acid more than one hundred products generated from its LOX‐derived fatty acid hydroperoxides have been described. Many of these products exhibit biological activity, suggesting a significant biological function of LOXs. This will be described for two different 13‐LOXs. (I) In various oilseeds we found that specific 13‐LOXs are localized at the lipid body membrane. They are capable of oxygenating esterified polyenoic fatty acids, such as triacylglycerols and phospho‐lipids. In addition, they form with arachidonic acid as substrate preferentially either 8‐ or 11‐hydroperoxy eicosatetraenoic acid, which is a very unusual positional specificity for plant LOXs. (II) From barley leaves we isolated another linoleate 13‐LOX form, which is localized within chloroplasts and is induced by jasmonic acid methyl ester. It is suggested, that this LOX form is capable of oxygenating linolenic acid residues of galactolipids. Examples will be presented for barley leaves of oxygenated derivatives of linolenic acid and compounds resulting from the hydroperoxide lyase‐branch of the LOX pathway.

Wasternack, C.; Parthier, B.; Jasmonate-signalled plant gene expression Trends Plant Sci. 2, 302-307, (1997) DOI: 10.1016/S1360-1385(97)89952-9

Jasmonic acid is distributed throughout higher plants, synthesized from linolenic acid via the octadecanoic pathway. An important and probably essential role seems to be its operation as a ‘master switch’, responsible for the activation of signal transduction pathways in response to predation and pathogen attack. Proteins encoded by jasmonate-induced genes include enzymes of alkaloid and phytoalexin synthesis, storage proteins, cell wall constituents and stress protectants. The wound-induced formation of proteinase inhibitors is a well-studied example, in which jasmonic acid combines with abscisic acid and ethylene to protect the plant from predation.
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