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Publikationen - Molekulare Signalverarbeitung

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Anwer, M. U.; Davis, A.; Davis, S. J.; Quint, M.; Photoperiod sensing of the circadian clock is controlled by EARLY FLOWERING 3 and GIGANTEA Plant J. 101, 1397-1410, (2020) DOI: 10.1111/tpj.14604

ELF3 and GI are two important components of the Arabidopsis circadian clock. They are not only essential for the oscillator function but are also pivotal in mediating light inputs to the oscillator. Lack of either results in a defective oscillator causing severely compromised output pathways, such as photoperiodic flowering and hypocotyl elongation. Although single loss of function mutants of ELF3 and GI have been well‐studied, their genetic interaction remains unclear. We generated an elf3 gi double mutant to study their genetic relationship in clock‐controlled growth and phase transition phenotypes. We found that ELF3 and GI repress growth differentially during the night and the day, respectively. Circadian clock assays revealed that ELF3 and GI are essential Zeitnehmers that enable the oscillator to synchronize the endogenous cellular mechanisms to external environmental signals. In their absence, the circadian oscillator fails to synchronize to the light‐dark cycles even under diurnal conditions. Consequently, clock‐mediated photoperiod‐responsive growth and development are completely lost in plants lacking both genes, suggesting that ELF3 and GI together convey photoperiod sensing to the central oscillator. Since ELF3 and GI are conserved across flowering plants and represent important breeding and domestication targets, our data highlight the possibility of developing photoperiod‐insensitive crops by adjusting the allelic combination of these two key genes.

Mercier, C.; Roux, B.; Havé, M.; Le Poder, L.; Duong, N.; David, P.; Leonhardt, N.; Blanchard, L.; Naumann, C.; Abel, S.; Cuyas, L.; Pluchon, S.; Laurent, N.; Desnos, T.; Root responses to aluminium and iron stresses require the SIZ1 SUMO ligase to modulate the STOP1 transcription factor Plant J. 108, 1507-1521, (2021) DOI: 10.1111/tpj.15525

STOP1, an Arabidopsis transcription factor favouring root growth tolerance against Al toxicity, acts in the response to iron under low Pi (-Pi). Previous studies have shown that Al and Fe regulate the stability and accumulation of STOP1 in roots, and that the STOP1 protein is sumoylated by an unknown E3 ligase. Here, using a forward genetics suppressor screen, we identified the E3 SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) ligase SIZ1 as a modulator of STOP1 signalling. Mutations in SIZ1 increase the expression of ALMT1 (a direct target of STOP1) and root growth responses to Al and Fe stress in a STOP1-dependent manner. Moreover, loss-of-function mutations in SIZ1 enhance the abundance of STOP1 in the root tip. However, no sumoylated STOP1 protein was detected by western blot analysis in our sumoylation assay in E. coli, suggesting the presence of a more sophisticated mechanism. We conclude that the sumo ligase SIZ1 negatively regulates STOP1 signalling, at least in part by modulating STOP1 protein in the root tip. Our results will allow a better understanding of this signalling pathway.

Stenzel, I.; Hause, B.; Maucher, H.; Pitzschke, A.; Miersch, O.; Ziegler, J.; Ryan, C. A.; Wasternack, C.; Allene oxide cyclase dependence of the wound response and vascular bundle-specific generation of jasmonates in tomato - amplification in wound signalling Plant J. 33, 577-589, (2003) DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-313X.2003.01647.x

The allene oxide cyclase (AOC)‐catalyzed step in jasmonate (JA) biosynthesis is important in the wound response of tomato. As shown by treatments with systemin and its inactive analog, and by analysis of 35S::prosysteminsense and 35S::prosysteminantisense plants, the AOC seems to be activated by systemin (and JA) leading to elevated formation of JA. Data are presented on the local wound response following activation of AOC and generation of JA, both in vascular bundles. The tissue‐specific occurrence of AOC protein and generation of JA is kept upon wounding or other stresses, but is compromised in 35S::AOCsense plants, whereas 35S::AOCantisense plants exhibited residual AOC expression, a less than 10% rise in JA, and no detectable expression of wound response genes. The (i) activation of systemin‐dependent AOC and JA biosynthesis occurring only upon substrate generation, (ii) the tissue‐specific occurrence of AOC in vascular bundles, where the prosystemin gene is expressed, and (iii) the tissue‐specific generation of JA suggest an amplification in the wound response of tomato leaves allowing local and rapid defense responses.

Vignutelli, A.; Wasternack, C.; Apel, K.; Bohlmann, H.; Systemic and local induction of an Arabidopsis thionin gene by wounding and pathogens Plant J. 14, 285-295, (1998) DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-313X.1998.00117.x

The Arabidopsis Thi2.1 thionin gene was cloned and sequenced. The promoter was fused to the uidA gene and stably transformed into Arabidopsis to study its regulation. GUS expression levels correlated with the steady‐state levels of Thi2.1 mRNA, thus demonstrating that the promoter is sufficient for the regulation of the Thi2.1 gene. The sensitivity of the Thi2.1 gene to methyl jasmonate was found to be developmentally determined. Systemic and local expression could be induced by wounding and inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f sp. matthiolae . A deletion analysis of the promoter identified a fragment of 325 bp upstream of the start codon, which appears to contain all the elements necessary for the regulation of the Thi2.1 gene. These results support the view that thionins are defence proteins, and indicate the possibility that resistance of Arabidopsis plants to necrotrophic fungal pathogens is mediated through the octadecanoid pathway.

Binarová, P.; Hause, B.; Doležel, J.; Dráber, P.; Association of γ-tubulin with kinetochore/centromeric region of plant chromosomes Plant J. 14, 751-757, (1998) DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-313x.1998.00166.x

Monoclonal antibodies raised against a phylogenetically conserved peptide from the C‐terminal domain of γ‐tubulin molecule were used for immunofluorescence detection of γ‐tubulin in acentriolar mitotic spindles of plant cells. The antibodies stained kinetochore fibres along their whole length, including the close vicinity of kinetochores. After microtubule disassembly by the antimicrotubular drugs amiprophos‐methyl, oryzalin and colchicine, γ‐tubulin was found on remnants of kinetochore fibres attached to chromosomes. In cells recovering from the amiprophos‐methyl treatment, γ‐tubulin was localized with the re‐growing kinetochore microtubule fibres nucleated or captured by kinetochore/centromeric regions. On isolated chromosomes, γ‐tubulin co‐localized with α‐tubulin in the kinetochore/centromeric region. The data presented suggest that in acentriolar higher plant cells γ‐tubulin might be directly or indirectly involved in modulation and/or stabilization of kinetochore–microtubule interactions.

Terrile, M. C.; París, R.; Calderón-Villalobos, L. I. A.; Iglesias, M. J.; Lamattina, L.; Estelle, M.; Casalongué, C. A.; Nitric oxide influences auxin signaling through S-nitrosylation of the Arabidopsis TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE 1 auxin receptor Plant J. 70, 492-500, (2011) DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2011.04885.x

Previous studies have demonstrated that auxin (indole‐3‐acetic acid) and nitric oxide (NO) are plant growth regulators that coordinate several plant physiological responses determining root architecture. Nonetheless, the way in which these factors interact to affect these growth and developmental processes is not well understood. The Arabidopsis thaliana F‐box proteins TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE 1/AUXIN SIGNALING F‐BOX (TIR1/AFB) are auxin receptors that mediate degradation of AUXIN/INDOLE‐3‐ACETIC ACID (Aux/IAA) repressors to induce auxin‐regulated responses. A broad spectrum of NO‐mediated protein modifications are known in eukaryotic cells. Here, we provide evidence that NO donors increase auxin‐dependent gene expression while NO depletion blocks Aux/IAA protein degradation. NO also enhances TIR1‐Aux/IAA interaction as evidenced by pull‐down and two‐hybrid assays. In addition, we provide evidence for NO‐mediated modulation of auxin signaling through S‐nitrosylation of the TIR1 auxin receptor. S‐nitrosylation of cysteine is a redox‐based post‐translational modification that contributes to the complexity of the cellular proteome. We show that TIR1 C140 is a critical residue for TIR1–Aux/IAA interaction and TIR1 function. These results suggest that TIR1 S‐nitrosylation enhances TIR1–Aux/IAA interaction, facilitating Aux/IAA degradation and subsequently promoting activation of gene expression. Our findings underline the importance of NO in phytohormone signaling pathways.

Pienkny, S.; Brandt, W.; Schmidt, J.; Kramell, R.; Ziegler, J.; Functional characterization of a novel benzylisoquinoline O-methyltransferase suggests its involvement in papaverine biosynthesis in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L) Plant J. 60, 56-67, (2009) DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2009.03937.x

The benzylisoquinoline alkaloids are a highly diverse group of about 2500 compounds which accumulate in a species‐specific manner. Despite the numerous compounds which could be identified, the biosynthetic pathways and the participating enzymes or cDNAs could be characterized only for a few selected members, whereas the biosynthesis of the majority of the compounds is still largely unknown. In an attempt to characterize additional biosynthetic steps at the molecular level, integration of alkaloid and transcript profiling across Papaver species was performed. This analysis showed high expression of an expressed sequence tag (EST) of unknown function only in Papaver somniferum varieties. After full‐length cloning of the open reading frame and sequence analysis, this EST could be classified as a member of the class II type O ‐methyltransferase protein family. It was related to O ‐methyltransferases from benzylisoquinoline biosynthesis, and the amino acid sequence showed 68% identical residues to norcoclaurine 6‐O ‐methyltransferase. However, rather than methylating norcoclaurine, the recombinant protein methylated norreticuline at position seven with a K m of 44 μm using S ‐adenosyl‐l ‐methionine as a cofactor. Of all substrates tested, only norreticuline was converted. Even minor changes in the benzylisoquinoline backbone were not tolerated by the enzyme. Accordingly, the enzyme was named norreticuline 7–O ‐methyltransferase (N7OMT). This enzyme represents a novel O ‐methyltransferase in benzylisoquinoline metabolism. Expression analysis showed slightly increased expression of N7OMT in P. somniferum varieties containing papaverine, suggesting its involvement in the partially unknown biosynthesis of this pharmaceutically important compound.

Halim, V. A.; Altmann, S.; Ellinger, D.; Eschen-Lippold, L.; Miersch, O.; Scheel, D.; Rosahl, S.; PAMP-induced defense responses in potato require both salicylic acid and jasmonic acid Plant J. 57, 230-242, (2009) DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2008.03688.x

To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying pathogen‐associated molecular pattern (PAMP)‐induced defense responses in potato (Solanum tuberosum ), the role of the signaling compounds salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) was analyzed. Pep‐13, a PAMP from Phytophthora , induces the accumulation of SA, JA and hydrogen peroxide, as well as the activation of defense genes and hypersensitive‐like cell death. We have previously shown that SA is required for Pep‐13‐induced defense responses. To assess the importance of JA, RNA interference constructs targeted at the JA biosynthetic genes, allene oxide cyclase and 12‐oxophytodienoic acid reductase, were expressed in transgenic potato plants. In addition, expression of the F‐box protein COI1 was reduced by RNA interference. Plants expressing the RNA interference constructs failed to accumulate the respective transcripts in response to wounding or Pep‐13 treatment, neither did they contain significant amounts of JA after elicitation. In response to infiltration of Pep‐13, the transgenic plants exhibited a highly reduced accumulation of reactive oxygen species as well as reduced hypersensitive cell death. The ability of the JA‐deficient plants to accumulate SA suggests that SA accumulation is independent or upstream of JA accumulation. These data show that PAMP responses in potato require both SA and JA and that, in contrast to Arabidopsis, these compounds act in the same signal transduction pathway. Despite their inability to fully respond to PAMP treatment, the transgenic RNA interference plants are not altered in their basal defense against Phytophthora infestans .

Sreenivasulu, N.; Radchuk, V.; Alawady, A.; Borisjuk, L.; Weier, D.; Staroske, N.; Fuchs, J.; Miersch, O.; Strickert, M.; Usadel, B.; Wobus, U.; Grimm, B.; Weber, H.; Weschke, W.; De-regulation of abscisic acid contents causes abnormal endosperm development in the barley mutant seg8 Plant J. 64, 589-603, (2010) DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2010.04350.x

Grain development of the maternal effect shrunken endosperm mutant seg8 was analysed by comprehensive molecular, biochemical and histological methods. The most obvious finding was de‐regulation of ABA levels, which were lower compared to wild‐type during the pre‐storage phase but higher during the transition from cell division/differentiation to accumulation of storage products. Ploidy levels and ABA amounts were inversely correlated in the developing endosperms of both mutant and wild‐type, suggesting an influence of ABA on cell‐cycle regulation. The low ABA levels found in seg8 grains between anthesis and beginning endosperm cellularization may result from a gene dosage effect in the syncytial endosperm that causes impaired transfer of ABA synthesized in vegetative tissues into filial grain parts. Increased ABA levels during the transition phase are accompanied by higher chlorophyll and carotenoid/xanthophyll contents. The data suggest a disturbed ABA‐releasing biosynthetic pathway. This is indicated by up‐regulation of expression of the geranylgeranyl reductase (GGR) gene, which may be induced by ABA deficiency during the pre‐storage phase. Abnormal cellularization/differentiation of the developing seg8 endosperm and reduced accumulation of starch are phenotypic characteristics that reflect these disturbances. The present study did not reveal the primary gene defect causing the seg8 phenotype, but presents new insights into the maternal/filial relationships regulating barley endosperm development.

Floß, D. S.; Hause, B.; Lange, P. R.; Küster, H.; Strack, D.; Walter, M. H.; Knock-down of the MEP pathway isogene 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase 2 inhibits formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza-induced apocarotenoids, and abolishes normal expression of mycorrhiza-specific plant marker genes Plant J. 56, 86-100, (2008) DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2008.03575.x

The first step of the plastidial methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway is catalyzed by two isoforms of 1‐deoxy‐d‐ xylulose 5‐phosphate synthase (DXS1 and DXS2). In Medicago truncatula , MtDXS1 and MtDXS2 genes exhibit completely different expression patterns. Most prominently, colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi induces the accumulation of certain apocarotenoids (cyclohexenone and mycorradicin derivatives) correlated with the expression of MtDXS2 but not of MtDXS1. To prove a distinct function of DXS2, a selective RNAi approach on MtDXS2 expression was performed in transgenic hairy roots of M. truncatula. Repression of MtDXS2 consistently led to reduced transcript levels in mycorrhizal roots, and to a concomitant reduction of AM‐induced apocarotenoid accumulation. The transcript levels of MtDXS1 remained unaltered in RNAi plants, and no phenotypical changes in non‐AM plants were observed. Late stages of the AM symbiosis were adversely affected, but only upon strong repression with residual MtDXS2‐1 transcript levels remaining below approximately 10%. This condition resulted in a strong decrease in the transcript levels of MtPT4 , an AM‐specific plant phosphate transporter gene, and in a multitude of other AM‐induced plant marker genes, as shown by transcriptome analysis. This was accompanied by an increased proportion of degenerating and dead arbuscules at the expense of mature ones. The data reveal a requirement for DXS2‐dependent MEP pathway‐based isoprenoid products to sustain mycorrhizal functionality at later stages of the symbiosis. They further validate the concept of a distinct role for DXS2 in secondary metabolism, and offer a novel tool to selectively manipulate the levels of secondary isoprenoids by targeting their precursor supply.
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