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Publikationen - Molekulare Signalverarbeitung

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Quint, M.; Melchinger, A. E.; Dußle, C. M.; Lübberstedt, T.; Breeding for virus resistance in maize Genetika 32, 529-545, (2000)

Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) is an important disease in maize, which is emerging in Germany since 1983. Using this pest as a model for the inheritance of oligogenic traits, we clarified the genetic ba­sis for resistance in early maturing European maize germplasm. Screening of 122 adapted European inbred lines identified three completely resistant lines, which were used for further analyses. The genetics of SCMV resis­tance was investigated by allelism tests in field experiments combined with QTL and bulked segregant analyses (BSA) on the marker level. QTL analyses revealed the presence of two major genes Scm1 and Scm2 plus three minor QTL. Involvement of Scm1 and Scm2 in the inheritance of SCMV resistance could be confirmed by BSA in a second cross. Breeders can make use of tightly linked STS markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS) as well as our SCMV resistant flint lines to improve their elite germplasm. Currently, recurrent backcrossing with phenotypic selection is the most appropriate and cost effective breeding method. With de­creasing costs of DNA chip technology, MAS can be competitive with phenotypic selection in the near future. Further objectives of our research are the isolation and cloning of Scm1 and Scm2. To achieve this goal we follow two different approaches. (1) Positional cloning based on more than 500 AFLP primer combinations resulted in Scm1/Scm2 specific markers with a resolution of approximately 0.2 cM in the respective re­gions. (2) Resistance gene analogues (RGAs), cosegregating with the tar­get genes are used to identify further candidate genes for transformation experiments.

BERGER, S.; Weichert, H.; Porzel, A.; Wasternack, C.; Kühn, H.; Feussner, I.; Enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation in leaf development BBA-Mol. Cell Biol. Lipids 1533, 266-276, (2001) DOI: 10.1016/S1388-1981(01)00161-5

Enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation has been implicated in programmed cell death, which is a major process of leaf senescence. To test this hypothesis we developed a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for a simultaneous analysis of the major hydro(pero)xy polyenoic fatty acids. Quantities of lipid peroxidation products in leaves of different stages of development including natural senescence indicated a strong increase in the level of oxygenated polyenoic fatty acids (PUFAs) during the late stages of leaf senescence. Comprehensive structural elucidation of the oxygenation products by means of HPLC, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance suggested a non-enzymatic origin. However, in some cases a small share of specifically oxidized PUFAs was identified suggesting involvement of lipid peroxidizing enzymes. To inspect the possible role of enzymatic lipid peroxidation in leaf senescence, we analyzed the abundance of lipoxygenases (LOXs) in rosette leaves of Arabidopsis. LOXs and their product (9Z,11E,13S,15Z)-13-hydroperoxy-9,11,15-octadecatrienoic acid were exclusively detected in young green leaves. In contrast, in senescing leaves the specific LOX products were overlaid by large amounts of stereo-random lipid peroxidation products originating from non-enzymatic oxidation. These data indicate a limited contribution of LOXs to total lipid peroxidation, and a dominant role of non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation in late stages of leaf development.

De Nardi, B.; Dreos, R.; Del Terra, L.; Martellossi, C.; Asquini, E.; Tornincasa, P.; Gasperini, D.; Pacchioni, B.; Rathinavelu, R.; Pallavicini, A.; Graziosi, G.; Differential responses of Coffea arabica L. leaves and roots to chemically induced systemic acquired resistance Genome 49, 1594-1605, (2006) DOI: 10.1139/g06-125

Coffea arabica is susceptible to several pests and diseases, some of which affect the leaves and roots. Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is the main defence mechanism activated in plants in response to pathogen attack. Here, we report the effects of benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid-s-methyl ester (BTH), a SAR chemical inducer, on the expression profile of C. arabica. Two cDNA libraries were constructed from the mRNA isolated from leaves and embryonic roots to create 1587 nonredundant expressed sequence tags (ESTs). We developed a cDNA microarray containing 1506 ESTs from the leaves and embryonic roots, and 48 NBS-LRR (nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat) gene fragments derived from 2 specific genomic libraries. Competitive hybridization between untreated and BTH-treated leaves resulted in 55 genes that were significantly overexpressed and 16 genes that were significantly underexpressed. In the roots, 37 and 42 genes were over and underexpressed, respectively. A general shift in metabolism from housekeeping to defence occurred in the leaves and roots after BTH treatment. We observed a systemic increase in pathogenesis-related protein synthesis, in the oxidative burst, and in the cell wall strengthening processes. Moreover, responses in the roots and leaves varied significantly.

Rekik, I.; Drira, N.; Grubb, C. D.; Elleuch, A.; Molecular characterization and evolution studies of a SERK like gene transcriptionally induced during somatic embryogenesis in Phoenix Dactylifera L v Deglet Nour Genetika 47, 323-337, (2015) DOI: 10.2298/GENSR1501323R

A somatic embryogenesis receptor kinase like (SERKL) cDNA, designated PhSERKL, was isolated from date palm (Phoenix Dactylifera L) using RACE PCR. PhSERKL protein shared all the characteristic domains of the SERK family, including five leucine-rich repeats, one proline-rich region motif, a transmembrane domain, and kinase domains. Phylogenetic analyses using PHYLIP and Notung 2.7 programs suggest that the SERK proteins of some plant species resulted from relatively ancient duplication events. We predict an ancestor protein of monocots and dicots SERK using FASTML program. Somatic embryogenic cultures of date palm were established following transfer of callus cultures to medium containing 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The role of PhSERKL gene during establishment of somatic embryogenesis in culture was investigated using quantitative real-time PCR. PhSERKL gene was highly expressed during embryogenic competence acquisition and globular embryo formation in culture. Overall, levels of expression of PhSERKL gene were lower in nonembryogenic tissues and organs than in embryogenic callus.

Quint, M.; Delker, C.; Franklin, K. A.; Wigge, P. A.; Halliday, K. J.; van Zanten, M.; Molecular and genetic control of plant thermomorphogenesis Nat. Plants 2, 15190, (2016) DOI: 10.1038/nplants.2015.190

Temperature is a major factor governing the distribution and seasonal behaviour of plants. Being sessile, plants are highly responsive to small differences in temperature and adjust their growth and development accordingly. The suite of morphological and architectural changes induced by high ambient temperatures, below the heat-stress range, is collectively called thermomorphogenesis. Understanding the molecular genetic circuitries underlying thermomorphogenesis is particularly relevant in the context of climate change, as this knowledge will be key to rational breeding for thermo-tolerant crop varieties. Until recently, the fundamental mechanisms of temperature perception and signalling remained unknown. Our understanding of temperature signalling is now progressing, mainly by exploiting the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The transcription factor PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4) has emerged as a critical player in regulating phytohormone levels and their activity. To control thermomorphogenesis, multiple regulatory circuits are in place to modulate PIF4 levels, activity and downstream mechanisms. Thermomorphogenesis is integrally governed by various light signalling pathways, the circadian clock, epigenetic mechanisms and chromatin-level regulation. In this Review, we summarize recent progress in the field and discuss how the emerging knowledge in Arabidopsis may be transferred to relevant crop systems.

Wasternack, C.; Hause, B.; The missing link in jasmonic acid biosynthesis Nat. Plants 5, 776-777, (2019) DOI: 10.1038/s41477-019-0492-y

Jasmonic acid biosynthesis starts in chloroplasts and is finalized in peroxisomes. The required export of a crucial intermediate out of the chloroplast is now shown to be mediated by a protein from the outer envelope called JASSY.

Wasternack, C.; Sulfation switch in the shade Nat. Plants 6, 186-187, (2020) DOI: 10.1038/s41477-020-0620-8

Plants adjust the balance between growth and defence using photoreceptors and jasmonates. Levels of active jasmonates are reduced in a phytochrome B-dependent manner by upregulation of a 12-hydroxyjasmonate sulfotransferase, leading to increase in shade avoidance and decrease in defence.

Kumari, P.; Dahiya, P.; Livanos, P.; Zergiebel, L.; Kölling, M.; Poeschl, Y.; Stamm, G.; Hermann, A.; Abel, S.; Müller, S.; Bürstenbinder, K.; IQ67 DOMAIN proteins facilitate preprophase band formation and division-plane orientation Nat. Plants 7, 739-747, (2021) DOI: 10.1038/s41477-021-00923-z

Spatiotemporal control of cell division is essential for the growth and development of multicellular organisms. In plant cells, proper cell plate insertion during cytokinesis relies on the premitotic establishment of the division plane at the cell cortex. Two plant-specific cytoskeleton arrays, the preprophase band (PPB) and the phragmoplast, play important roles in division-plane orientation and cell plate formation, respectively1. Microtubule organization and dynamics and their communication with membranes at the cortex and cell plate are coordinated by multiple, mostly distinct microtubule-associated proteins2. How division-plane selection and establishment are linked, however, is still unknown. Here, we report members of the Arabidopsis IQ67 DOMAIN (IQD) family3 as microtubule-targeted proteins that localize to the PPB and phragmoplast and additionally reside at the cell plate and a polarized cortical region including the cortical division zone (CDZ). IQDs physically interact with PHRAGMOPLAST ORIENTING KINESIN (POK) proteins4,5 and PLECKSTRIN HOMOLOGY GTPase ACTIVATING (PHGAP) proteins6, which are core components of the CDZ1. The loss of IQD function impairs PPB formation and affects CDZ recruitment of POKs and PHGAPs, resulting in division-plane positioning defects. We propose that IQDs act as cellular scaffolds that facilitate PPB formation and CDZ set-up during symmetric cell division.

Hou, S.; Thiergart, T.; Vannier, N.; Mesny, F.; Ziegler, J.; Pickel, B.; Hacquard, S.; A microbiota–root–shoot circuit favours Arabidopsis growth over defence under suboptimal light Nat. Plants 7, 1078–1092, (2021) DOI: 10.1038/s41477-021-00956-4

AbstractBidirectional root–shoot signalling is probably key in orchestrating stress responses and ensuring plant survival. Here, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana responses to microbial root commensals and light are interconnected along a microbiota–root–shoot axis. Microbiota and light manipulation experiments in a gnotobiotic plant system reveal that low photosynthetically active radiation perceived by leaves induces long-distance modulation of root bacterial communities but not fungal or oomycete communities. Reciprocally, microbial commensals alleviate plant growth deficiency under low photosynthetically active radiation. This growth rescue was associated with reduced microbiota-induced aboveground defence responses and altered resistance to foliar pathogens compared with the control light condition. Inspection of a set of A. thaliana mutants reveals that this microbiota- and light-dependent growth–defence trade-off is directly explained by belowground bacterial community composition and requires the host transcriptional regulator MYC2. Our work indicates that aboveground stress responses in plants can be modulated by signals from microbial root commensals.
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