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Publikationen - Molekulare Signalverarbeitung

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Jablonická, V.; Ziegler, J.; Vatehová, Z.; Lišková, D.; Heilmann, I.; Obložinský, M.; Heilmann, M. Inhibition of phospholipases influences the metabolism of wound-induced benzylisoquinoline alkaloids in Papaver somniferum L. J Plant Physiol 223, 1-8, (2018) DOI: 10.1016/j.jplph.2018.01.007

Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are important secondary plant metabolites and include medicinally relevant drugs, such as morphine or codeine. As the de novo synthesis of BIA backbones is (still) unfeasible, to date the opium poppy plant Papaver somniferum L. represents the main source of BIAs. The formation of BIAs is induced in poppy plants by stress conditions, such as wounding or salt treatment; however, the details about regulatory processes controlling BIA formation in opium poppy are not well studied. Environmental stresses, such as wounding or salinization, are transduced in plants by phospholipid-based signaling pathways, which involve different classes of phospholipases. Here we investigate whether pharmacological inhibition of phospholipase A2 (PLA2, inhibited by aristolochic acid (AA)) or phospholipase D (PLD; inhibited by 5-fluoro-2-indolyl des-chlorohalopemide (FIPI)) in poppy plants influences wound-induced BIA accumulation and the expression of key biosynthetic genes. We show that inhibition of PLA2 results in increased morphinan biosynthesis concomitant with reduced production of BIAs of the papaverine branch, whereas inhibition of PLD results in increased production of BIAs of the noscapine branch. The data suggest that phospholipid-dependent signaling pathways contribute to the activation of morphine biosynthesis at the expense of the production of other BIAs in poppy plants. A better understanding of the effectors and the principles of regulation of alkaloid biosynthesis might be the basis for the future genetic modification of opium poppy to optimize BIA production.

Antolín-Llovera, M.; Ried, M. K.; Binder, A.; Parniske, M. Receptor Kinase Signaling Pathways in Plant-Microbe Interactions Annu Rev Phytopathol 50, 451-473, (2012) DOI: 10.1146/annurev-phyto-081211-173002

Plant receptor-like kinases (RLKs) function in diverse signaling pathways, including the responses to microbial signals in symbiosis and defense. This versatility is achieved with a common overall structure: an extracytoplasmic domain (ectodomain) and an intracellular protein kinase domain involved in downstream signal transduction. Various surfaces of the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) ectodomain superstructure are utilized for interaction with the cognate ligand in both plant and animal receptors. RLKs with lysin-motif (LysM) ectodomains confer recognitional specificity toward N-acetylglucosamine-containing signaling molecules, such as chitin, peptidoglycan (PGN), and rhizobial nodulation factor (NF), that induce immune or symbiotic responses. Signaling downstream of RLKs does not follow a single pattern; instead, the detailed analysis of brassinosteroid (BR) signaling, innate immunity, and symbiosis revealed at least three largely nonoverlapping pathways. In this review, we focus on RLKs involved in plant-microbe interactions and contrast the signaling pathways leading to symbiosis and defense.

Schilling, S.; Stenzel, I.; von Bohlen, A.; Wermann, M.; Schulz, K.; Demuth, H.-U.; Wasternack, C. Isolation and characterization of the glutaminyl cyclases from Solanum tuberosum and Arabidopsis thaliana: implications for physiological functions Biol. Chem 388, 145-153, (2007) DOI: 10.1515/BC.2007.016

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