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Publikationen - Molekulare Signalverarbeitung

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Bücher und Buchkapitel

Mielke, S.; Gasperini, D. Plant–Insect Bioassay for Testing Arabidopsis Resistance to the Generalist Herbivore Spodoptera littoralis (Champion, A. & Laplaze, L., eds.). Methods Mol Biol 2085, 69-78, (2020) ISBN: 978-1-0716-0142-6 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-0716-0142-6_5

Jasmonates are essential engineers of plant defense responses against many pests, including herbivorous insects. Herbivory induces the production of jasmonic acid (JA) and its bioactive conjugate jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile), which then triggers a large transcriptional reprogramming to promote plant acclimation. The contribution of the JA pathway, including its components and regulators, to defense responses against insect herbivory can be evaluated by conducting bioassays with a wide range of host plants and insect pests. Here, we describe a detailed and reproducible protocol for testing feeding behavior of the generalist herbivore Spodoptera littoralis on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and hence infer the contribution of JA-mediated plant defense responses to a chewing insect.
Bücher und Buchkapitel

Möller, B.; Poeschl, Y.; Klemm, S.; Bürstenbinder, K. Morphological Analysis of Leaf Epidermis Pavement Cells with PaCeQuant (Cvrčková, F. & Žárský, V., eds.). Methods Mol Biol 1992, 329-349, (2019) ISBN: 978-1-4939-9469-4 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-9469-4_22

Morphological analysis of cell shapes requires segmentation of cell contours from input images and subsequent extraction of meaningful shape descriptors that provide the basis for qualitative and quantitative assessment of shape characteristics. Here, we describe the publicly available ImageJ plugin PaCeQuant and its associated R package PaCeQuantAna, which provides a pipeline for fully automatic segmentation, feature extraction, statistical analysis, and graphical visualization of cell shape properties. PaCeQuant is specifically well suited for analysis of jigsaw puzzle-like leaf epidermis pavement cells from 2D input images and supports the quantification of global, contour-based, skeleton-based, and pavement cell-specific shape descriptors.
Bücher und Buchkapitel

Möller, B.; Zergiebel, L.; Bürstenbinder, K. Quantitative and Comparative Analysis of Global Patterns of (Microtubule) Cytoskeleton Organization with CytoskeletonAnalyzer2D (Cvrčková, F. & Žárský, V., eds.). Methods Mol Biol 1992, 151-171, (2019) ISBN: 978-1-4939-9469-4 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-9469-4_10

The microtubule cytoskeleton plays important roles in cell morphogenesis. To investigate the mechanisms of cytoskeletal organization, for example, during growth or development, in genetic studies, or in response to environmental stimuli, image analysis tools for quantitative assessment are needed. Here, we present a method for texture measure-based quantification and comparative analysis of global microtubule cytoskeleton patterns and subsequent visualization of output data. In contrast to other approaches that focus on the extraction of individual cytoskeletal fibers and analysis of their orientation relative to the growth axis, CytoskeletonAnalyzer2D quantifies cytoskeletal organization based on the analysis of local binary patterns. CytoskeletonAnalyzer2D thus is particularly well suited to study cytoskeletal organization in cells where individual fibers are difficult to extract or which lack a clearly defined growth axis, such as leaf epidermal pavement cells. The tool is available as ImageJ plugin and can be combined with publicly available software and tools, such as R and Cytoscape, to visualize similarity networks of cytoskeletal patterns.
Bücher und Buchkapitel

Ziegler, J.; Hussain, H.; Neubert, R. H. H.; Abel, S. Sensitive and Selective Amino Acid Profiling of Minute Tissue Amounts by HPLC/Electrospray Negative Tandem Mass Spectrometry Using 9-Fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc-Cl) Derivatization (Alterman, M. A., ed.). Methods Mol Biol 2030, 365-379, (2019) ISBN: 978-1-4939-9639-1 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-9639-1_27

A method for selective and sensitive quantification of amino acids is described. The combination of established derivatization procedures of secondary and primary amino groups with 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl chloride (Fmoc-Cl) and subsequent detection of derivatized amino acids by LC-ESI-MS/MS using multiple reaction monitoring provides high selectivity. The attachment of an apolar moiety enables purification of derivatized amino acids from matrix by a single solid-phase extraction step, which increases sensitivity by reduced ion suppression during LC-ESI-MS/MS detection. Additionally, chromatography of all amino acids can be performed on reversed-phase HPLC columns using eluents without additives, which are known to cause significant decreases in signal to noise ratios. The method has been routinely applied for amino acid profiling of low amounts of liquids and tissues of various origins with a sample throughput of about 50–100 samples a day. In addition to a detailed description of the method, some representative examples are presented.
Publikation

Ibañez, C.; Poeschl, Y.; Peterson, T.; Bellstädt, J.; Denk, K.; Gogol-Döring, A.; Quint, M.; Delker, C. Ambient temperature and genotype differentially affect developmental and phenotypic plasticity in Arabidopsis thaliana BioRxiv (2017) DOI: 10.1101/017285

Background: Global increase in ambient temperatures constitute a significant challenge to wild and cultivated plant species. Forward genetic analyses of individual temperature-responsive traits have resulted in the identification of several signaling and response components. However, a comprehensive knowledge about temperature sensitivity of different developmental stages and the contribution of natural variation is still scarce and fragmented at best. Results: Here, we systematically analyze thermomorphogenesis throughout a complete life cycle in ten natural Arabidopsis thaliana accessions grown in four different temperatures ranging from 16 to 28 °C. We used Q 10 , GxE, phenotypic divergence and correlation analyses to assess temperature sensitivity and genotype effects of more than 30 morphometric and developmental traits representing five phenotype classes. We found that genotype and temperature differentially affected plant growth and development with variing strengths. Furthermore, overall correlations among phenotypic temperature responses was relatively low which seems to be caused by differential capacities for temperature adaptations of individual accessions. Conclusion: Genotype-specific temperature responses may be attractive targets for future forward genetic approaches and accession-specific thermomorphogenesis maps may aid the assessment of functional relevance of known and novel regulatory components.
Publikation

Ibañez, C.; Poeschl, Y.; Peterson, T.; Bellstädt, J.; Denk, K.; Gogol-Döring, A.; Quint, M.; Delker, C. Ambient temperature and genotype differentially affect developmental and phenotypic plasticity in Arabidopsis thaliana BMC Plant Biol 17, 114, (2017) DOI: 10.1186/s12870-017-1068-5

BackgroundGlobal increase in ambient temperatures constitute a significant challenge to wild and cultivated plant species. Forward genetic analyses of individual temperature-responsive traits have resulted in the identification of several signaling and response components. However, a comprehensive knowledge about temperature sensitivity of different developmental stages and the contribution of natural variation is still scarce and fragmented at best.ResultsHere, we systematically analyze thermomorphogenesis throughout a complete life cycle in ten natural Arabidopsis thaliana accessions grown under long day conditions in four different temperatures ranging from 16 to 28 °C. We used Q10, GxE, phenotypic divergence and correlation analyses to assess temperature sensitivity and genotype effects of more than 30 morphometric and developmental traits representing five phenotype classes. We found that genotype and temperature differentially affected plant growth and development with variing strengths. Furthermore, overall correlations among phenotypic temperature responses was relatively low which seems to be caused by differential capacities for temperature adaptations of individual accessions.ConclusionGenotype-specific temperature responses may be attractive targets for future forward genetic approaches and accession-specific thermomorphogenesis maps may aid the assessment of functional relevance of known and novel regulatory components.
Publikationen in Druck

Drost, H.-J.; Gabel, A.; Domazet-Lošo, T.; Quint, M.; Grosse, I. Capturing Evolutionary Signatures in Transcriptomes with myTAI BioRxiv (2016) DOI: 10.1101/051565

Combining transcriptome data of biological processes or response to stimuli with evolutionary information such as the phylogenetic conservation of genes or their sequence divergence rates enables the investigation of evolutionary constraints on these processes or responses. Such phylotranscriptomic analyses recently unraveled that mid-developmental transcriptomes of fly, fish, and cress were dominated by evolutionarily conserved genes and genes under negative selection and thus recapitulated the developmental hourglass on the transcriptomic level. Here, we present a protocol for performing phylotranscriptomic analyses on any biological process of interest. When applying this protocol, users are capable of detecting different evolutionary constraints acting on different stages of the biological process of interest in any species. For each step of the protocol, modular and easy-to-use open-source software tools are provided, which enable a broad range of scientists to apply phylotranscriptomic analyses to a wide spectrum of biological questions.
Publikation

Trenner, J.; Poeschl, Y.; Grau, J.; Gogol-Döring, A.; Quint, M.; Delker, C. Auxin-induced expression divergence between Arabidopsis species likely originates within the TIR1/AFB-AUX/IAA-ARF module BioRxiv (2016) DOI: 10.1101/038422

Auxin is an essential regulator of plant growth and development and auxin signaling components are conserved among land plants. Yet, a remarkable degree of natural variation in physiological and transcriptional auxin responses has been described among Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. As intra-species comparisons offer only limited genetic variation, we here inspect the variation of auxin responses between A. thaliana and A. lyrata. This approach allowed the identification of conserved auxin response genes including novel genes with potential relevance for auxin biology. Furthermore, promoter divergences were analyzed for putative sources of variation. De novo motif discovery identified novel and variants of known elements with potential relevance for auxin responses, emphasizing the complex, and yet elusive, code of element combinations accounting for the diversity in transcriptional auxin responses. Furthermore, network analysis revealed correlations of inter-species differences in the expression of AUX/IAA gene clusters and classic auxin-related genes. We conclude that variation in general transcriptional and physiological auxin responses may originate substantially from functional or transcriptional variations in the TIR1/AFB, AUX/IAA, and ARF signaling network. In that respect, AUX/IAA gene expression divergence potentially reflects differences in the manner in which different species transduce identical auxin signals into gene expression responses.
Bücher und Buchkapitel

Hellmuth, A.; Calderón Villalobos, L. I. A. Radioligand Binding Assays for Determining Dissociation Constants of Phytohormone Receptors (Lois, L. M. & Matthiesen, R., eds.). Methods Mol Biol 1450, 23-34, (2016) ISBN: 978-1-4939-3759-2 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-3759-2_3

In receptor–ligand interactions, dissociation constants provide a key parameter for characterizing binding. Here, we describe filter-based radioligand binding assays at equilibrium, either varying ligand concentrations up to receptor saturation or outcompeting ligand from its receptor with increasing concentrations of ligand analogue. Using the auxin coreceptor system, we illustrate how to use a saturation binding assay to determine the apparent dissociation constant (K D ′ ) for the formation of a ternary TIR1–auxin–AUX/IAA complex. Also, we show how to determine the inhibitory constant (K i) for auxin binding by the coreceptor complex via a competition binding assay. These assays can be applied broadly to characterize a one-site binding reaction of a hormone to its receptor.
Publikation

Hoehenwarter, W.; Mönchgesang, S.; Neumann, S.; Majovsky, P.; Abel, S.; Müller, J. Comparative expression profiling reveals a role of the root apoplast in local phosphate response BMC Plant Biol 16 , 106, (2016) DOI: 10.1186/s12870-016-0790-8

BackgroundPlant adaptation to limited phosphate availability comprises a wide range of responses to conserve and remobilize internal phosphate sources and to enhance phosphate acquisition. Vigorous restructuring of root system architecture provides a developmental strategy for topsoil exploration and phosphate scavenging. Changes in external phosphate availability are locally sensed at root tips and adjust root growth by modulating cell expansion and cell division. The functionally interacting Arabidopsis genes, LOW PHOSPHATE RESPONSE 1 and 2 (LPR1/LPR2) and PHOSPHATE DEFICIENCY RESPONSE 2 (PDR2), are key components of root phosphate sensing. We recently demonstrated that the LOW PHOSPHATE RESPONSE 1 - PHOSPHATE DEFICIENCY RESPONSE 2 (LPR1-PDR2) module mediates apoplastic deposition of ferric iron (Fe3+) in the growing root tip during phosphate limitation. Iron deposition coincides with sites of reactive oxygen species generation and triggers cell wall thickening and callose accumulation, which interfere with cell-to-cell communication and inhibit root growth.ResultsWe took advantage of the opposite phosphate-conditional root phenotype of the phosphate deficiency response 2 mutant (hypersensitive) and low phosphate response 1 and 2 double mutant (insensitive) to investigate the phosphate dependent regulation of gene and protein expression in roots using genome-wide transcriptome and proteome analysis. We observed an overrepresentation of genes and proteins that are involved in the regulation of iron homeostasis, cell wall remodeling and reactive oxygen species formation, and we highlight a number of candidate genes with a potential function in root adaptation to limited phosphate availability. Our experiments reveal that FERRIC REDUCTASE DEFECTIVE 3 mediated, apoplastic iron redistribution, but not intracellular iron uptake and iron storage, triggers phosphate-dependent root growth modulation. We further highlight expressional changes of several cell wall-modifying enzymes and provide evidence for adjustment of the pectin network at sites of iron accumulation in the root.ConclusionOur study reveals new aspects of the elaborate interplay between phosphate starvation responses and changes in iron homeostasis. The results emphasize the importance of apoplastic iron redistribution to mediate phosphate-dependent root growth adjustment and suggest an important role for citrate in phosphate-dependent apoplastic iron transport. We further demonstrate that root growth modulation correlates with an altered expression of cell wall modifying enzymes and changes in the pectin network of the phosphate-deprived root tip, supporting the hypothesis that pectins are involved in iron binding and/or phosphate mobilization.
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