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Weichert, H.; Maucher, H.; Hornung, E.; Wasternack, C.; Feussner, I.; Shift in Fatty Acid and Oxylipin Pattern of Tomato Leaves Following Overexpression of the Allene Oxide Cyclase 275-278, (2003) DOI: 10.1007/978-94-017-0159-4_64
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are a source of numerous oxidation products, the oxylipins. In leaves, α-linolenic acid (α-LeA) is the preferential substrate for lipid peroxidation reactions. This reaction may be catalyzed either by a 9-lipoxygenase (9-LOX) or by a 13-LOX and oxygen is inserted regioselectively as well as stereospecifically leading to formation of 13S- or 9S-hydroperoxy octadecatrienoic acid (13-/9-HPOT; Brash, 1999). At least, seven different enzyme families or reaction branches within the LOX pathway can use these HPOTs or other hydroperoxy PUFAs leading to (i) keto-PUFAs (LOX); (ii) epoxy hydroxy-PUFAs (epoxy alcohol synthase, EAS); (iii) octadecanoids and jasmonates (allene oxide synthase, AOS); (iv) leaf aldehydes and leaf alcohols (hydroperoxide lyase, HPL); (v) hydroxy PUFAs (reductase); (vi) divinyl ether PUFAs (divinyl ether synthase, DES); and (vii) epoxy- or dihydrodiol-PUFAs (peroxygenase, PDX; Fig. 1; Feussner and Wasternack, 2002).
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Stumpe, M.; Stenzel, I.; Weichert, H.; Hause, B.; Feussner, I.; The Lipoxygenase Pathway in Mycorrhizal Roots of Medicago Truncatula 287-290, (2003) DOI: 10.1007/978-94-017-0159-4_67
Mycorrhizas are by far the most frequent occurring beneficial symbiotic interactions between plants and fungi. Species in >80% of extant plant families are capable of establishing an arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM). In relation to the development of the symbiosis the first molecular modifications are those associated with plant defense responses, which seem to be locally suppressed to levels compatible with symbiotic interaction (Gianinazzi-Pearson, 1996). AM symbiosis can, however, reduce root disease caused by several soil-borne pathogens. The mechanisms underlying this protective effect are still not well understood. In plants, products of the enzyme lipoxygenase (LOX) and the corresponding downstream enzymes, collectively named LOX pathway (Fig. 1B), are involved in wound healing, pest resistance, and signaling, or they have antimicrobial and antifungal activity (Feussner and Wasternack, 2002). The central reaction in this pathway is catalyzed by LOXs leading to formation of either 9- or 13-hydroperoxy octadeca(di/trien)oic acids (9/13-HPO(D/T); Brash, 1999). Thus LOXs may be divided into 9- and 13-LOXs (Fig. 1A). Seven different reaction branches within this pathway can use these hydroperoxy polyenoic fatty acids (PUFAs) leading to (i) keto PUFAs by a LOX; (ii) epoxy hydroxy-fatty acids by an epoxy alcohol synthase (EAS); (iii) octadecanoids and jasmonates via allene oxide synthase (AOS); (iv) leaf aldehydes and leaf alcohols via fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase (HPL); (v) hydroxy PUFAs (reductase); (vi) divinyl ether PUFAs via divinyl ether synthase (DES); and (vii) epoxy- or dihydrodiolPUFAs via peroxygenase (PDX; Feussner and Wasternack, 2002). AOS, HPL and DES belong to one subfamily of P450-containing enzymes, the CYP74 family (Feussner and Wasternack, 2002). Here, the involvement of this CYP74 enzyme family in mycorrhizal roots of M. truncatula during early stages of AM symbiosis formation was analyzed.
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Stenzel, I.; Hause, B.; Feussner, I.; Wasternack, C.; Transcriptional Activation of Jasmonate Biosynthesis Enzymes is not Reflected at Protein Level 267-270, (2003) DOI: 10.1007/978-94-017-0159-4_62
Jasmonic acid (JA) and its precursor 12-oxo phytodienoic acid (OPDA) are lipid-derived signals in plant stress responses and development (Wasternack and Hause, 2002). Within the wound-response pathway of tomato, a local response of expression of defense genes such as the proteinase inhibitor 2 gene (PIN2) is preceded by a rise in JA (Herde et al., 1996; Howe et al., 1996) and ethylene (O’Donnell et al., 1996). Mutants affected in JA biosynthesis such as defl (Howe et al., 1996) or spr-2 (Li et al., 2002) clearly indicated that JA biosynthesis is an ultimate part of wound signaling. It is less understood, however, how the rise in JA is regulated.
Stenzel, I.; Hause, B.; Miersch, O.; Kurz, T.; Maucher, H.; Weichert, H.; Ziegler, J.; Feussner, I.; Wasternack, C.; Jasmonate biosynthesis and the allene oxide cyclase family of Arabidopsis thaliana Plant Mol. Biol. 51, 895-911, (2003) DOI: 10.1023/A:1023049319723
In biosynthesis of octadecanoids and jasmonate (JA), the naturally occurring enantiomer is established in a step catalysed by the gene cloned recently from tomato as a single-copy gene (Ziegler et al., 2000). Based on sequence homology, four full-length cDNAs were isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia coding for proteins with AOC activity. The expression of AOCgenes was transiently and differentially up-regulated upon wounding both locally and systemically and was induced by JA treatment. In contrast, AOC protein appeared at constitutively high basal levels and was slightly increased by the treatments. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed abundant occurrence of AOC protein as well as of the preceding enzymes in octadecanoid biosynthesis, lipoxygenase (LOX) and allene oxide synthase (AOS), in fully developed tissues, but much less so in 7-day old leaf tissues. Metabolic profiling data of free and esterified polyunsaturated fatty acids and lipid peroxidation products including JA and octadecanoids in wild-type leaves and the jasmonate-deficient mutant OPDA reductase 3 (opr3) revealed preferential activity of the AOS branch within the LOX pathway. 13-LOX products occurred predominantly as esterified derivatives, and all 13-hydroperoxy derivatives were below the detection limits. There was a constitutive high level of free 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) in untreated wild-type and opr3 leaves, but an undetectable expression of AOC. Upon wounding opr3 leaves exhibited only low expression of AOC, wounded wild-type leaves, however, accumulated JA and AOC mRNA. These and further data suggest regulation of JA biosynthesis by OPDA compartmentalization and a positive feedback by JA during leaf development.
Stenzel, I.; Hause, B.; Maucher, H.; Pitzschke, A.; Miersch, O.; Ziegler, J.; Ryan, C. A.; Wasternack, C.; Allene oxide cyclase dependence of the wound response and vascular bundle-specific generation of jasmonates in tomato - amplification in wound signalling Plant J. 33, 577-589, (2003) DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-313X.2003.01647.x
The allene oxide cyclase (AOC)‐catalyzed step in jasmonate (JA) biosynthesis is important in the wound response of tomato. As shown by treatments with systemin and its inactive analog, and by analysis of 35S::prosysteminsense and 35S::prosysteminantisense plants, the AOC seems to be activated by systemin (and JA) leading to elevated formation of JA. Data are presented on the local wound response following activation of AOC and generation of JA, both in vascular bundles. The tissue‐specific occurrence of AOC protein and generation of JA is kept upon wounding or other stresses, but is compromised in 35S::AOCsense plants, whereas 35S::AOCantisense plants exhibited residual AOC expression, a less than 10% rise in JA, and no detectable expression of wound response genes. The (i) activation of systemin‐dependent AOC and JA biosynthesis occurring only upon substrate generation, (ii) the tissue‐specific occurrence of AOC in vascular bundles, where the prosystemin gene is expressed, and (iii) the tissue‐specific generation of JA suggest an amplification in the wound response of tomato leaves allowing local and rapid defense responses.
Schilling, S.; Manhart, S.; Hoffmann, T.; Ludwig, H.-H.; Wasternack, C.; Demuth, H.-U.; Substrate Specificity of Glutaminyl Cyclases from Plants and Animals Biol. Chem. 384, 1583-1592, (2003) DOI: 10.1515/BC.2003.175
Glutaminyl cyclases (QC) catalyze the intramolecular cyclization of N-terminal glutamine residues of peptides and proteins. For a comparison of the substrate specificity of human and papaya QC enzymes, a novel continuous assay was established by adapting an existing discontinuous method. Specificity constants (kcat/Km) of dipeptides and dipeptide surrogates were higher for plant QC, whereas the selectivity for oligopeptides was similar for both enzymes. However, only the specificity constants of mammalian QC were dependent on size and composition of the substrates. Specificity constants of both enzymes were equally pH-dependent in the acidic pH-region, revealing a pKa value identical to the pKa of the substrate, suggesting similarities in the substrate conversion mode. Accordingly, both QCs converted the L-?homoglutaminyl residue in the peptide H-?homoGln-Phe-Lys-Arg-Leu-Ala-NH2 and the glutaminyl residues of the branched peptide H-Gln-Lys(Gln)-Arg-Leu-Ala-NH2 as well as the partially cyclized peptide H-Gln-cyclo( N?-Lys-Arg-Pro-Ala-Gly-Phe). In contrast, only QC from C. papaya was able to cyclize a methylated glutamine residue, while this compound did not even inhibit human QC-catalysis, suggesting distinct substrate recognition pattern. The conversion of the potential physiological substrates gastrin, neurotensin and [GlN1]-fertilization promoting peptide indicates that human QC may play a key role in posttranslational modification of most if not all pGlu-containing hormones.
Schilling, S.; Niestroj, A. J.; Rahfeld, J.-U.; Hoffmann, T.; Wermann, M.; Zunkel, K.; Wasternack, C.; Demuth, H.-U.; Identification of Human Glutaminyl Cyclase as a Metalloenzyme J. Biol. Chem. 278, 49773-49779, (2003) DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M309077200
Human glutaminyl cyclase (QC) was identified as a metalloenzyme as suggested by the time-dependent inhibition by the heterocyclic chelators 1,10-phenanthroline and dipicolinic acid. The effect of EDTA on QC catalysis was negligible. Inactivated enzyme could be fully restored by the addition of Zn2+ in the presence of equimolar concentrations of EDTA. Little reactivation was observed with Co2+ and Mn2+. Other metal ions such as K+, Ca2+, and Ni2+ were inactive under the same conditions. Additionally, imidazole and imidazole derivatives were identified as competitive inhibitors of QC. An initial structure activity-based inhibitor screening of imidazole-derived compounds revealed potent inhibition of QC by imidazole N-1 derivatives. Subsequent data base screening led to the identification of two highly potent inhibitors, 3-[3-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)propyl]-2-thioxoimidazolidin-4-one and 1,4-bis-(imidazol-1-yl)-methyl-2,5-dimethylbenzene, which exhibited respective Ki values of 818 ± 1 and 295 ± 5 nm. The binding properties of the imidazole derivatives were further analyzed by the pH dependence of QC inhibition. The kinetically obtained pKa values of 6.94 ± 0.02, 6.93 ± 0.03, and 5.60 ± 0.05 for imidazole, methylimidazole, and benzimidazole, respectively, match the values obtained by titrimetric pKa determination, indicating the requirement for an unprotonated nitrogen for binding to QC. Similarly, the pH dependence of the kinetic parameter Km for the QC-catalyzed conversion of H-Gln-7-ami-no-4-methylcoumarin also implies that only N-terminally unprotonated substrate molecules are bound to the active site of the enzyme, whereas turnover is not affected. The results reveal human QC as a metal-dependent transferase, suggesting that the active site-bound metal is a potential site for interaction with novel, highly potent competitive inhibitors.
O'Donnell, P. J.; Schmelz, E.; Block, A.; Miersch, O.; Wasternack, C.; Jones, J. B.; Klee, H. J.; Multiple Hormones Act Sequentially to Mediate a Susceptible Tomato Pathogen Defense Response Plant Physiol. 133, 1181-1189, (2003) DOI: 10.1104/pp.103.030379
Phytohormones regulate plant responses to a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. How a limited number of hormones differentially mediate individual stress responses is not understood. We have used one such response, the compatible interaction of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria (Xcv), to examine the interactions of jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene, and salicylic acid (SA). The role of JA was assessed using an antisense allene oxide cyclase transgenic line and the def1 mutant to suppress Xcv-induced biosynthesis of jasmonates. Xcv growth was limited in these lines as was subsequent disease symptom development. No increase in JA was detected before the onset of terminal necrosis. The lack of a detectable increase in JA may indicate that an oxylipin other than JA regulates basal resistance and symptom proliferation. Alternatively, there may be an increase in sensitivity to JA or related compounds following infection. Hormone measurements showed that the oxylipin signal must precede subsequent increases in ethylene and SA accumulation. Tomato thus actively regulates the Xcv-induced disease response via the sequential action of at least three hormones, promoting expansive cell death of its own tissue. This sequential action of jasmonate, ethylene, and SA in disease symptom development is different from the hormone interactions observed in many other plant-pathogen interactions.
Monostori, T.; Schulze, J.; Sharma, V. K.; Maucher, H.; Wasternack, C.; Hause, B.; Novel plasmid vectors for homologous transformation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) with JIP23 cDNA in sense and antisense orientation Cereal Res. Commun. 31, 17-24, (2003) DOI: 10.1007/BF03543245
The most abundant jasmonate-induced protein (JIP) in barley leaves is a 23 kDa protein (JIP23). Its function, however, is unknown. In order to analyze its function by homologous transformation, new plasmid vectors have been constructed. They carry the cDNA coding for JIP23 in sense or antisense orientation under the control of the Ubi-1-promoter as well as the pat resistance gene under the control of the 35S promoter. Barley mesophyll protoplasts were transiently transformed with the sense constructs. PAT activity and immunological detection of JIP23 could be achieved in transformed protoplasts but not in untransformed protoplasts indicating that the construct was active. Thus, these new vectors are suitable for stable transformation of barley. Carrying a multiple cloning site (MCS), these vectors can be used now in a wide range of transformation of barley.
Hause, B.; Stenzel, I.; Miersch, O.; Wasternack, C.; Occurrence of the allene oxide cyclase in different organs and tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana Phytochemistry 64, 971-980, (2003) DOI: 10.1016/S0031-9422(03)00447-3
Occurrence of an essential enzyme in jasmonate (JA) biosynthesis, the allene oxide cyclase, (AOC) was analyzed in different developmental stages and various organs of Arabidopsis thaliana plants by immuno blot analysis and immunocytological approaches. Levels of AOC and of the two preceding enzymes in JA biosynthesis increased during seedling development accompanied by increased levels of JA and 12-oxophytodienoic acid levels after 4 and 8 weeks. Most tissues including all vascular bundles and that of flower buds contain AOC protein. Flowers shortly before opening, however, contain AOC protein preferentially in ovules, stigma cells and vascular bundles, whereas in anthers and pollen AOC could not be detected. The putative roles of AOC and JA in development are discussed.The allene oxide cyclase (AOC) is an important enzyme in jasmonate biosynthesis. Levels and occurrence of AOC in different organs and tissues are altered during development of Arabidopsis thaliana.