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Wasternack, C.; Termination in Jasmonate Signaling by MYC2 and MTBs Trends Plant Sci. 24, 667-669, (2019) DOI: 10.1016/j.tplants.2019.06.001

Jasmonic acid (JA) signaling can be switched off by metabolism of JA. The master regulator MYC2, interacting with MED25, has been shown to be deactivated by the bHLH transcription factors MTB1, MTB2, and MTB3. An autoregulatory negative feedback loop has been proposed for this termination in JA signaling.

Wasternack, C.; New Light on Local and Systemic Wound Signaling Trends Plant Sci. 24, 102-105, (2019) DOI: 10.1016/j.tplants.2018.11.009

Electric signaling and Ca2+ waves were discussed to occur in systemic wound responses. Two new overlapping scenarios were identified: (i) membrane depolarization in two special cell types followed by an increase in systemic cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt), and (ii) glutamate sensed by GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR LIKE proteins and followed by Ca2+-based defense in distal leaves.

Wasternack, C.; Hause, B.; A Bypass in Jasmonate Biosynthesis – the OPR3-independent Formation Trends Plant Sci. 23, 276-279, (2018) DOI: 10.1016/j.tplants.2018.02.011

For the first time in 25 years, a new pathway for biosynthesis of jasmonic acid (JA) has been identified. JA production takes place via 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) including reduction by OPDA reductases (OPRs). A loss-of-function allele, opr3-3, revealed an OPR3-independent pathway converting OPDA to JA.

Wasternack, C.; Hause, B.; Blütenduft, Abwehr, Entwicklung: Jasmonsäure - ein universelles Pflanzenhormon Biologie in unserer Zeit 44, 164-171, (2014) DOI: 10.1002/biuz.201410535

Pflanzen müssen gegen vielfältige biotische und abiotische Umwelteinflusse eine Abwehr aufbauen. Aber gleichzeitig müssen sie wachsen und sich vermehren. Jasmonate sind neben anderen Hormonen ein zentrales Signal bei der Etablierung von Abwehrmechanismen, aber auch Signal von Entwicklungsprozessen wie Blüten‐ und Trichombildung, sowie der Hemmung von Wachstum. Biosynthese und essentielle Komponenten der Signaltransduktion von JA und seinem biologisch aktiven Konjugat JA‐Ile sind gut untersucht. Der Rezeptor ist ein Proteinkomplex, der “JA‐Ile‐Wahrnehmung” mit proteasomalem Abbau von Repressorproteinen verbindet. Dadurch können positiv agierende Transkriptionsfaktoren wirksam werden und vielfältige Genexpressionsänderungen auslösen. Dies betrifft die Bildung von Abwehrproteinen, Enzymen der JA‐Biosynthese und Sekundärstoffbildung, und Proteinen von Signalketten und Entwicklungsprozessen. Die Kenntnisse zur JA‐Ile‐Wirkung werden in Landwirtschaft und Biotechnologie genutzt.

Robson, F.; Okamoto, H.; Patrick, E.; Harris, S.-R.; Wasternack, C.; Brearley, C.; Turner, J. G.; Jasmonate and Phytochrome A Signaling in Arabidopsis Wound and Shade Responses Are Integrated through JAZ1 Stability Plant Cell 22, 1143-1160, (2010) DOI: 10.1105/tpc.109.067728

Jasmonate (JA) activates plant defense, promotes pollen maturation, and suppresses plant growth. An emerging theme in JA biology is its involvement in light responses; here, we examine the interdependence of the JA- and light-signaling pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana. We demonstrate that mutants deficient in JA biosynthesis and signaling are deficient in a subset of high irradiance responses in far-red (FR) light. These mutants display exaggerated shade responses to low, but not high, R/FR ratio light, suggesting a role for JA in phytochrome A (phyA) signaling. Additionally, we demonstrate that the FR light–induced expression of transcription factor genes is dependent on CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1), a central component of JA signaling, and is suppressed by JA. phyA mutants had reduced JA-regulated growth inhibition and VSP expression and increased content of cis-(+)-12-oxophytodienoic acid, an intermediate in JA biosynthesis. Significantly, COI1-mediated degradation of JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN1-β-glucuronidase (JAZ1-GUS) in response to mechanical wounding and JA treatment required phyA, and ectopic expression of JAZ1-GUS resulted in exaggerated shade responses. Together, these results indicate that JA and phyA signaling are integrated through degradation of the JAZ1 protein, and both are required for plant responses to light and stress.

Mugford, S. G.; Yoshimoto, N.; Reichelt, M.; Wirtz, M.; Hill, L.; Mugford, S. T.; Nakazato, Y.; Noji, M.; Takahashi, H.; Kramell, R.; Gigolashvili, T.; Flügge, U.-I.; Wasternack, C.; Gershenzon, J.; Hell, R.; Saito, K.; Kopriva, S.; Disruption of Adenosine-5′-Phosphosulfate Kinase in Arabidopsis Reduces Levels of Sulfated Secondary Metabolites Plant Cell 21, 910-927, (2009) DOI: 10.1105/tpc.109.065581

Plants can metabolize sulfate by two pathways, which branch at the level of adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate (APS). APS can be reduced to sulfide and incorporated into Cys in the primary sulfate assimilation pathway or phosphorylated by APS kinase to 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphosulfate, which is the activated sulfate form for sulfation reactions. To assess to what extent APS kinase regulates accumulation of sulfated compounds, we analyzed the corresponding gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana. Analysis of T-DNA insertion knockout lines for each of the four isoforms did not reveal any phenotypical alterations. However, when all six combinations of double mutants were compared, the apk1 apk2 plants were significantly smaller than wild-type plants. The levels of glucosinolates, a major class of sulfated secondary metabolites, and the sulfated 12-hydroxyjasmonate were reduced approximately fivefold in apk1 apk2 plants. Although auxin levels were increased in the apk1 apk2 mutants, as is the case for most plants with compromised glucosinolate synthesis, typical high auxin phenotypes were not observed. The reduction in glucosinolates resulted in increased transcript levels for genes involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis and accumulation of desulfated precursors. It also led to great alterations in sulfur metabolism: the levels of sulfate and thiols increased in the apk1 apk2 plants. The data indicate that the APK1 and APK2 isoforms of APS kinase play a major role in the synthesis of secondary sulfated metabolites and are required for normal growth rates.

Lee, C.-W.; Efetova, M.; Engelmann, J. C.; Kramell, R.; Wasternack, C.; Ludwig-Müller, J.; Hedrich, R.; Deeken, R.; Agrobacterium tumefaciens Promotes Tumor Induction by Modulating Pathogen Defense in Arabidopsis thaliana Plant Cell 21, 2948-2962, (2009) DOI: 10.1105/tpc.108.064576

Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease by transferring and integrating bacterial DNA (T-DNA) into the plant genome. To examine the physiological changes and adaptations during Agrobacterium-induced tumor development, we compared the profiles of salicylic acid (SA), ethylene (ET), jasmonic acid (JA), and auxin (indole-3-acetic acid [IAA]) with changes in the Arabidopsis thaliana transcriptome. Our data indicate that host responses were much stronger toward the oncogenic strain C58 than to the disarmed strain GV3101 and that auxin acts as a key modulator of the Arabidopsis–Agrobacterium interaction. At initiation of infection, elevated levels of IAA and ET were associated with the induction of host genes involved in IAA, but not ET signaling. After T-DNA integration, SA as well as IAA and ET accumulated, but JA did not. This did not correlate with SA-controlled pathogenesis-related gene expression in the host, although high SA levels in mutant plants prevented tumor development, while low levels promoted it. Our data are consistent with a scenario in which ET and later on SA control virulence of agrobacteria, whereas ET and auxin stimulate neovascularization during tumor formation. We suggest that crosstalk among IAA, ET, and SA balances pathogen defense launched by the host and tumor growth initiated by agrobacteria.

Brüx, A.; Liu, T.-Y.; Krebs, M.; Stierhof, Y.-D.; Lohmann, J. U.; Miersch, O.; Wasternack, C.; Schumacher, K.; Reduced V-ATPase Activity in the trans-Golgi Network Causes Oxylipin-Dependent Hypocotyl Growth Inhibition in Arabidopsis Plant Cell 20, 1088-1100, (2008) DOI: 10.1105/tpc.108.058362

Regulated cell expansion allows plants to adapt their morphogenesis to prevailing environmental conditions. Cell expansion is driven by turgor pressure created by osmotic water uptake and is restricted by the extensibility of the cell wall, which in turn is regulated by the synthesis, incorporation, and cross-linking of new cell wall components. The vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) could provide a way to coordinately regulate turgor pressure and cell wall synthesis, as it energizes the secondary active transport of solutes across the tonoplast and also has an important function in the trans-Golgi network (TGN), which affects synthesis and trafficking of cell wall components. We have previously shown that det3, a mutant with reduced V-ATPase activity, has a severe defect in cell expansion. However, it was not clear if this is caused by a defect in turgor pressure or in cell wall synthesis. Here, we show that inhibition of the tonoplast-localized V-ATPase subunit isoform VHA-a3 does not impair cell expansion. By contrast, inhibition of the TGN-localized isoform VHA-a1 is sufficient to restrict cell expansion. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the reduced hypocotyl cell expansion in det3 is conditional and due to active, hormone-mediated growth inhibition caused by a cell wall defect.

Ellis, C.; Karafyllidis, I.; Wasternack, C.; Turner, J. G.; The Arabidopsis Mutant cev1 Links Cell Wall Signaling to Jasmonate and Ethylene Responses Plant Cell 14, 1557-1566, (2002) DOI: 10.1105/tpc.002022

Biotic and abiotic stresses stimulate the synthesis of jasmonates and ethylene, which, in turn, induce the expression of genes involved in stress response and enhance defense responses. The cev1 mutant has constitutive expression of stress response genes and has enhanced resistance to fungal pathogens. Here, we show that cev1 plants have increased production of jasmonate and ethylene and that its phenotype is suppressed by mutations that interrupt jasmonate and ethylene signaling. Genetic mapping, complementation analysis, and sequence analysis revealed that CEV1 is the cellulose synthase CeSA3. CEV1 was expressed predominantly in root tissues, and cev1 roots contained less cellulose than wild-type roots. Significantly, the cev1 mutant phenotype could be reproduced by treating wild-type plants with cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors, and the cellulose synthase mutant rsw1 also had constitutive expression of VSP. We propose that the cell wall can signal stress responses in plants.

BERGER, S.; Weichert, H.; Porzel, A.; Wasternack, C.; Kühn, H.; Feussner, I.; Enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation in leaf development BBA-Mol. Cell Biol. Lipids 1533, 266-276, (2001) DOI: 10.1016/S1388-1981(01)00161-5

Enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation has been implicated in programmed cell death, which is a major process of leaf senescence. To test this hypothesis we developed a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for a simultaneous analysis of the major hydro(pero)xy polyenoic fatty acids. Quantities of lipid peroxidation products in leaves of different stages of development including natural senescence indicated a strong increase in the level of oxygenated polyenoic fatty acids (PUFAs) during the late stages of leaf senescence. Comprehensive structural elucidation of the oxygenation products by means of HPLC, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance suggested a non-enzymatic origin. However, in some cases a small share of specifically oxidized PUFAs was identified suggesting involvement of lipid peroxidizing enzymes. To inspect the possible role of enzymatic lipid peroxidation in leaf senescence, we analyzed the abundance of lipoxygenases (LOXs) in rosette leaves of Arabidopsis. LOXs and their product (9Z,11E,13S,15Z)-13-hydroperoxy-9,11,15-octadecatrienoic acid were exclusively detected in young green leaves. In contrast, in senescing leaves the specific LOX products were overlaid by large amounts of stereo-random lipid peroxidation products originating from non-enzymatic oxidation. These data indicate a limited contribution of LOXs to total lipid peroxidation, and a dominant role of non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation in late stages of leaf development.
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