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Publikationen - Molekulare Signalverarbeitung

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Flores, R.; Gago-Zachert, S.; Serra, P.; De la Peña, M.; Navarro, B.; Chrysanthemum Chlorotic Mottle Viroid (Hadidi, A., et al., eds.). 331-338, (2017) DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-801498-1.00031-0

Chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid (CChMVd) (398–401 nt) belongs to genus Pelamoviroid, family Avsunviroidae and, like other members of this family, replicates in plastids through a rolling-circle mechanism involving hammerhead ribozymes. CChMVd RNA adopts a branched conformation stabilized by a kissing-loop interaction, resembling peach latent mosaic viroid in this respect. Chrysanthemum is the only natural and experimental host for CChMVd, which in the most sensitive varieties induces leaf mottling and chlorosis, delay in flowering, and dwarfing. The viroid has been found in major chrysanthemum growing areas including Europe and Asia. There are natural variants in which the change (UUUC→GAAA) mapping at a tetraloop in the CChMVd branched conformation is sufficient to change the symptomatic phenotype into a nonsymptomatic one without altering the viroid titer. Preinfection with nonsymptomatic variants prevents challenge inoculation with symptomatic ones. Moreover, experimental coinoculation with symptomatic and nonsymptomatic CChMVd variants results in symptomless phenotypes only when the latter is in vast excess, thus indicating its lower fitness.
Bücher und Buchkapitel

Vaira, A. M.; Gago-Zachert, S.; Garcia, M. L.; Guerri, J.; Hammond, J.; Milne, R. G.; Moreno, P.; Morikawa, T.; Natsuaki, T.; Navarro, J. A.; Pallas, V.; Torok, V.; Verbeek, M.; Vetten, H. J.; Family - Ophioviridae (King, A. M. Q., et al., eds.). 743-748, (2012) DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-384684-6.00060-4

This chapter focuses on Ophioviridae family whose sole member genus is Ophiovirus. The member species of the genus include Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), Freesia sneak virus(FreSV), Lettuce ring necrosis virus (LRNV), and Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus (MiLBVV).The single stranded negative/possibly ambisense RNA genome is divided into 3–4 segments, each of which is encapsidated in a single coat protein (43–50 kDa) forming filamentous virions of about 3 nm in diameter, in shape of kinked or probably internally coiled circles of at least two different contour lengths. Ophioviruses can be mechanically transmitted to a limited range of test plants, inducing local lesions and systemic mottle. The natural hosts of CPsV, ranunculus white mottle virus (RWMV), MiLBVV, and LRNV are dicotyledonous plants of widely differing taxonomy. CPsV has a wide geographical distribution in citrus in the Americas, in the Mediterranean and in New Zealand. FreSV has been reported in two species of the family Ranunculacae from Northern Italy, and in lettuce in France and Germany. Tulip mild mottle mosaic virus (TMMMV) has been reported in tulips in Japan. LRNV is closely associated with lettuce ring necrosis disease in The Netherlands, Belgium, and France, and FreSV has been reported in Europe, Africa, North America and New Zealand.

Flores, R.; Gas, M.-E.; Molina-Serrano, D.; Nohales, M.-?.; Carbonell, A.; Gago, S.; De la Peña, M.; Daròs, J.-A.; Viroid Replication: Rolling-Circles, Enzymes and Ribozymes Viruses 1, 317-334, (2009) DOI: 10.3390/v1020317

Viroids, due to their small size and lack of protein-coding capacity, must rely essentially on their hosts for replication. Intriguingly, viroids have evolved the ability to replicate in two cellular organella, the nucleus (family Pospiviroidae) and the chloroplast (family Avsunviroidae). Viroid replication proceeds through an RNA-based rolling-circle mechanism with three steps that, with some variations, operate in both polarity strands: i) synthesis of longer-than-unit strands catalyzed by either the nuclear RNA polymerase II or a nuclear-encoded chloroplastic RNA polymerase, in both instances redirected to transcribe RNA templates, ii) cleavage to unit-length, which in the family Avsunviroidae is mediated by hammerhead ribozymes embedded in both polarity strands, while in the family Pospiviroidae the oligomeric RNAs provide the proper conformation but not the catalytic activity, and iii) circularization. The host RNA polymerases, most likely assisted by additional host proteins, start transcription from specific sites, thus implying the existence of viroid promoters. Cleavage and ligation in the family Pospiviroidae is probably catalyzed by an RNase III-like enzyme and an RNA ligase able to circularize the resulting 5’ and 3’ termini. Whether a chloroplastic RNA ligase mediates circularization in the family Avsunviroidae, or this reaction is autocatalytic, remains an open issue.
Bücher und Buchkapitel

Flores, R.; Carbonell, A.; De la Peña, M.; Gago, S.; RNAs Autocatalíticos: Ribozimas de Cabeza de Martillo 407-425, (2007)

Bücher und Buchkapitel

Vaira, A. M.; Acotto, G. P.; Gago-Zachert, S.; Garcia, M. L.; Grau, O.; Milne, R. G.; Morikawa, T.; Natsuaki, T.; Torov, V.; Verbeek, M.; Vetten, H. J.; Genus Ophiovirus 673-679, (2005) ISBN: 9780080575483 DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-249951-7.50014-6

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