Ziegler, J.; Schmidt, S.; Strehmel, N.; Scheel, D.; Abel, S.; Arabidopsis Transporter ABCG37/PDR9 contributes primarily highly oxygenated Coumarins to Root Exudation Sci. Rep. 7, 3704, (2017) DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-03250-6
The chemical composition of root exudates strongly impacts the interactions of plants with microorganisms in the rhizosphere and the efficiency of nutrient acquisition. Exudation of metabolites is in part mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. In order to assess the contribution of individual ABC transporters to root exudation, we performed an LC-MS based non-targeted metabolite profiling of semi-polar metabolites accumulating in root exudates of Arabidopsis thaliana plants and mutants deficient in the expression of ABCG36 (PDR8/PEN3), ABCG37 (PDR9) or both transporters. Comparison of the metabolite profiles indicated distinct roles for each ABC transporter in root exudation. Thymidine exudation could be attributed to ABCG36 function, whereas coumarin exudation was strongly reduced only in ABCG37 deficient plants. However, coumarin exudation was compromised in abcg37 mutants only with respect to certain metabolites of this substance class. The specificity of ABCG37 for individual coumarins was further verified by a targeted LC-MS based coumarin profiling method. The response to iron deficiency, which is known to strongly induce coumarin exudation, was also investigated. In either treatment, the distribution of individual coumarins between roots and exudates in the investigated genotypes suggested the involvement of ABCG37 in the exudation specifically of highly oxygenated rather than monohydroxylated coumarins.
Bücher und Buchkapitel
Flores, R.; Carbonell, A.; Gago, S.; Martínez de Alba, A.-E.; Delgado, S.; Rodio, M.-E.; Di Serio, F.; Viroid-host interactions: A molecular dialogue between two uneven partners Biology of Plant-Microbe Interactions 6, 1-9, (2008)
Gago, S.; De la Peña, M.; Flores, R.; A kissing-loop interaction in a hammerhead viroid RNA critical for its in vitro folding and in vivo viability RNA 11, 1073-1083, (2005) DOI: 10.1261/rna.2230605
Chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid (CChMVd) RNA (398–401 nucleotides) can form hammerhead ribozymes that play a functional role in its replication through a rolling-circle mechanism. In contrast to most other viroids, which adopt rod-like or quasi-rod-like secondary structures of minimal free energy, the computer-predicted conformations of CChMVd and Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd) RNAs are branched. Moreover, the covariations found in a number of natural CChMVd variants support that the same or a closely related conformation exists in vivo. Here we report that the CChMVd natural variability also supports that the branched conformation is additionally stabilized by a kissing-loop interaction resembling another one proposed in PLMVd from in vitro assays. Moreover, site-directed mutagenesis combined with bioassays and progeny analysis showed that: (1) single CChMVd mutants affecting the kissing loops had low or no infectivity at all, whereas infectivity was recovered in double mutants restoring the interaction; (2) mutations affecting the structure of the regions adjacent to the kissing loops reverted to wild type or led to rearranged stems, also supporting their interaction; and (3) the interchange between 4 nucleotides of each of the two kissing loops generated a viable CChMVd variant with eight mutations. PAGE analysis under denaturing and nondenaturing conditions revealed that the kissing-loop interaction determines proper in vitro folding of CChMVd RNA. Preservation of a similar kissing-loop interaction in two hammerhead viroids with an overall low sequence similarity suggests that it facilitates in vivo the adoption and stabilization of a compact folding critical for viroid viability.