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Bochnia, M.; Ziegler, J.; Glatter, M.; Zeyner, A.; Hypoglycin A in cow’s milk—A pilot study Toxins 13, 381, (2021) DOI: 10.3390/toxins13060381

Hypoglycin A (HGA) originating from soapberry fruits (litchi, and ackee) seeds or seedlings from the sycamore maple (SM) tree (related to Sapindaceae) may cause Jamaican vomiting sickness in humans and atypical myopathy in horses and ruminants. A possible transfer into dairy cow’s milk cannot be ruled out since the literature has revealed HGA in the milk of mares and in the offal of captured deer following HGA intoxication. From a study, carried out for another purpose, bulk raw milk samples from four randomly selected dairy farms were available. The cows were pastured in the daytime. A sycamore maple tree was found on the pasture of farm No. 1 only. Bulk milk from the individual tank or milk filling station was sampled in parallels and analyzed for HGA by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Measurable concentrations of HGA occurred only in milk from farm No. 1 and amounted to 120 and 489 nmol/L. Despite low and very variable HGA concentrations, the results indicate that the ingested toxin, once eaten, is transferred into the milk. However, it is unknown how much HGA the individual cow ingested during grazing and what amount was transferred into the bulk milk samples. As a prerequisite for a possible future safety assessment, carry-over studies are needed. Furthermore, the toxins’ stability during milk processing should also be investigated as well.

Hussain, H.; Ziegler, J.; Mrestani, Y.; Neubert, R. H. H.; Studies of the Corneocytary Pathway Across the Stratum Corneum. Part I: Diffusion of Amino Acids Into the Isolated Corneocytes Pharmazie 74, 340-344, (2019) DOI: 10.1691/ph.2019.8098

Amino acids (AAs), important constituents of natural moisturizing factors (NMFs) of the skin are decreased in diseased conditions such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. No study so far investigated the uptake of AAs into isolated corneocytes (COR). The present study was performed using 19 AAs, including taurine (TAU), to measure their amount diffused into the COR and binding of these AAs to keratin. Incubation of alanine, aspartic acid, asparagine, glutamine, glutamic acid, histidine, proline, serine and TAU with the isolated COR showed uptake after 24 h of 51.6, 95.4, 98.6, 94.1, 95.6, 90.1, 94.6, 72.9 and 57.8 %, respectively, into the COR but no binding with keratin. Uptake of TAU was validated by time dependent in-vitro diffusion models 'without COR and 'with COR'. The time dependent curve fitting showed that in in-vitro diffusion model 'without COR' there was no change in the total concentration of TAU until 72 hours, while in diffusion model 'with COR' the total conc. decreased to 37.8 % after 72 hours. The Pearson's correlation coefficient 'r' between the conc. curves of both in-vitro diffusion models was -0.54 that was an evidence of significant amount of TAU uptake by the COR. AAs as part of the NMFs have a great potential to be diffused into the COR. This property of the AAs can be employed in further dermatological research on diseased or aged skin conditions with NMFs deficiency.
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