Bücher und Buchkapitel
Flores, R.; Gago-Zachert, S.; Serra, P.; De la Peña, M.; Navarro, B.; Chrysanthemum Chlorotic Mottle Viroid (Hadidi, A., et al., eds.). 331-338, (2017) DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-801498-1.00031-0
Chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid (CChMVd) (398–401 nt) belongs to genus Pelamoviroid, family Avsunviroidae and, like other members of this family, replicates in plastids through a rolling-circle mechanism involving hammerhead ribozymes. CChMVd RNA adopts a branched conformation stabilized by a kissing-loop interaction, resembling peach latent mosaic viroid in this respect. Chrysanthemum is the only natural and experimental host for CChMVd, which in the most sensitive varieties induces leaf mottling and chlorosis, delay in flowering, and dwarfing. The viroid has been found in major chrysanthemum growing areas including Europe and Asia. There are natural variants in which the change (UUUC→GAAA) mapping at a tetraloop in the CChMVd branched conformation is sufficient to change the symptomatic phenotype into a nonsymptomatic one without altering the viroid titer. Preinfection with nonsymptomatic variants prevents challenge inoculation with symptomatic ones. Moreover, experimental coinoculation with symptomatic and nonsymptomatic CChMVd variants results in symptomless phenotypes only when the latter is in vast excess, thus indicating its lower fitness.
Winkler, M.; Niemeyer, M.; Hellmuth, A.; Janitza, P.; Christ, G.; Samodelov, S. L.; Wilde, V.; Majovsky, P.; Trujillo, M.; Zurbriggen, M. D.; Hoehenwarter, W.; Quint, M.; Calderón Villalobos, L. I. A.; Variation in auxin sensing guides AUX/IAA transcriptional repressor ubiquitylation and destruction Nat. Commun. 8, 15706, (2017) DOI: 10.1038/ncomms15706
Auxin is a small molecule morphogen that bridges SCFTIR1/AFB-AUX/IAA co-receptor interactions leading to ubiquitylation and proteasome-dependent degradation of AUX/IAA transcriptional repressors. Here, we systematically dissect auxin sensing by SCFTIR1-IAA6 and SCFTIR1-IAA19 co-receptor complexes, and assess IAA6/IAA19 ubiquitylation in vitro and IAA6/IAA19 degradation in vivo. We show that TIR1-IAA19 and TIR1-IAA6 have distinct auxin affinities that correlate with ubiquitylation and turnover dynamics of the AUX/IAA. We establish a system to track AUX/IAA ubiquitylation in IAA6 and IAA19 in vitro and show that it occurs in flexible hotspots in degron-flanking regions adorned with specific Lys residues. We propose that this signature is exploited during auxin-mediated SCFTIR1-AUX/IAA interactions. We present evidence for an evolving AUX/IAA repertoire, typified by the IAA6/IAA19 ohnologues, that discriminates the range of auxin concentrations found in plants. We postulate that the intrinsic flexibility of AUX/IAAs might bias their ubiquitylation and destruction kinetics enabling specific auxin responses.
Trenner, J.; Poeschl, Y.; Grau, J.; Gogol-Döring, A.; Quint, M.; Delker, C.; Auxin-induced expression divergence between Arabidopsis species may originate within the TIR1/AFB–AUX/IAA–ARF module J. Exp. Bot. 68, 539-552, (2017) DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erw457
Auxin is an essential regulator of plant growth and development, and auxin signaling components are conserved among land plants. Yet, a remarkable degree of natural variation in physiological and transcriptional auxin responses has been described among Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. As intraspecies comparisons offer only limited genetic variation, we here inspect the variation of auxin responses between A. thaliana and A. lyrata. This approach allowed the identification of conserved auxin response genes including novel genes with potential relevance for auxin biology. Furthermore, promoter divergences were analyzed for putative sources of variation. De novo motif discovery identified novel and variants of known elements with potential relevance for auxin responses, emphasizing the complex, and yet elusive, code of element combinations accounting for the diversity in transcriptional auxin responses. Furthermore, network analysis revealed correlations of interspecies differences in the expression of AUX/IAA gene clusters and classic auxin-related genes. We conclude that variation in general transcriptional and physiological auxin responses may originate substantially from functional or transcriptional variations in the TIR1/AFB, AUX/IAA, and ARF signaling network. In that respect, AUX/IAA gene expression divergence potentially reflects differences in the manner in which different species transduce identical auxin signals into gene expression responses.
García, M. L.; Bó, E. D.; da Graça, J. V.; Gago-Zachert, S.; Hammond, J.; Moreno, P.; Natsuaki, T.; Pallás, V.; Navarro, J. A.; Reyes, C. A.; Luna, G. R.; Sasaya, T.; Tzanetakis, I. E.; Vaira, A. M.; Verbeek, M.; ICTV Report Consortium, .; ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Ophioviridae J. Gen. Virol. 98, 1161-1162, (2017) DOI: 10.1099/jgv.0.000836
The Ophioviridae is a family of filamentous plant viruses, with single-stranded negative, and possibly ambisense, RNA genomes of 11.3–12.5 kb divided into 3–4 segments, each encapsidated separately. Virions are naked filamentous nucleocapsids, forming kinked circles of at least two different contour lengths. The sole genus, Ophiovirus, includes seven species. Four ophioviruses are soil-transmitted and their natural hosts include trees, shrubs, vegetables and bulbous or corm-forming ornamentals, both monocots and dicots. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Ophioviridae, which is available at http://www.ictv.global/report/ophioviridae.
Bücher und Buchkapitel
Vaira, A. M.; Acotto, G. P.; Gago-Zachert, S.; Garcia, M. L.; Grau, O.; Milne, R. G.; Morikawa, T.; Natsuaki, T.; Torov, V.; Verbeek, M.; Vetten, H. J.; Genus Ophiovirus 673-679, (2005) ISBN: 9780080575483 DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-249951-7.50014-6
Gago, S.; De la Peña, M.; Flores, R.; A kissing-loop interaction in a hammerhead viroid RNA critical for its in vitro folding and in vivo viability RNA 11, 1073-1083, (2005) DOI: 10.1261/rna.2230605
Chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid (CChMVd) RNA (398–401 nucleotides) can form hammerhead ribozymes that play a functional role in its replication through a rolling-circle mechanism. In contrast to most other viroids, which adopt rod-like or quasi-rod-like secondary structures of minimal free energy, the computer-predicted conformations of CChMVd and Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd) RNAs are branched. Moreover, the covariations found in a number of natural CChMVd variants support that the same or a closely related conformation exists in vivo. Here we report that the CChMVd natural variability also supports that the branched conformation is additionally stabilized by a kissing-loop interaction resembling another one proposed in PLMVd from in vitro assays. Moreover, site-directed mutagenesis combined with bioassays and progeny analysis showed that: (1) single CChMVd mutants affecting the kissing loops had low or no infectivity at all, whereas infectivity was recovered in double mutants restoring the interaction; (2) mutations affecting the structure of the regions adjacent to the kissing loops reverted to wild type or led to rearranged stems, also supporting their interaction; and (3) the interchange between 4 nucleotides of each of the two kissing loops generated a viable CChMVd variant with eight mutations. PAGE analysis under denaturing and nondenaturing conditions revealed that the kissing-loop interaction determines proper in vitro folding of CChMVd RNA. Preservation of a similar kissing-loop interaction in two hammerhead viroids with an overall low sequence similarity suggests that it facilitates in vivo the adoption and stabilization of a compact folding critical for viroid viability.
Cenzano, A.; Vigliocc, A.; Miersch, O.; Abdala, G.; Hydroxylated jasmonate levels during stolon to tuber transition in Solarium tuberosum L Potato Res. 48, 107, (2005) DOI: 10.1007/BF02742370
Various octadecanoids and derived compounds have been identified in potato leaves. However, information regarding jasmonate hydroxylated forms in stolons or tubers is scarce. We investigated endogenous jasmonates in stolon material ofSolarium tuberosum cv. Spunta. Stolons and incipient tubers were collected from 8 weeks old plants. The material was cut into apical regions and stolons. We identified jasmonic acid (JA), methyl jasmonate, 11-OH-JA, 12-OH-JA, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) and a conjugate. The content of JA and 12OH-JA decreased in the apical region but remained high in stolons during tuberization. Thus the apical region might be a site of JAs-utilization or metabolization and stolons might supply JAs to that region. The content of 12-OH-JA was higher than that of 11-OH-JA in all stages analyzed, both in apical regions and stolons. However, these compounds showed a different time-course in the apical region: while 11-OH-JA increased, 12-OH-JA decreased. Thus, JA from leaves or roots could be transported as 12-OH-JA to the apical region, stimulating tuber formation.
Andrade, A.; Vigliocco, A.; Alemano, S.; Miersch, O.; Botella, M. A.; Abdala, G.; Endogenous jasmonates and octadecanoids in hypersensitive tomato mutants during germination and seedling development in response to abiotic stress Seed Sci. Res. 15, 309-318, (2005) DOI: 10.1079/SSR2005219
Although jasmonates (JAs) are involved in germination and seedling development, the regulatory mechanism of JAs, and their relation with endogenous level modifications in these processes, is not well understood. We report here the detection of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), jasmonic acid (JA), 11-hydroxyjasmonate (11-OH-JA), 12-hydroxyjasmonate (12-OH-JA) and methyljasmonate (JAME) in unimbibed seeds and seedlings of tomato Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv. Moneymaker (wild type) and tss1, tss2, tos1 mutants. The main compounds in wild-type and tss1, tss2, tos1 seeds were the hydroxylate-JAs; 12-OH-JA was the major component in dry seeds of the wild type and in tss2 and tos1. The amounts of these derivatives were higher in seeds than in seedlings. Changes in JAs during wild-type and tss1 imbibition were analysed in seeds and the imbibition water. In wild-type imbibed seeds, 11-OH-JA content was higher than in tss1. 12-OH-JA showed a different tendency with respect to 11-OH-JA, with high levels in the wild type at early imbibition. In tss1, levels of 12-OH-JA rose from 24 to 48 h of imbibition. At 72 h of imbibition, when radicles had emerged, the amounts of both hydroxylates in wild-type and tss1 seeds were minimal. An important release of the hydroxylate forms was observed in the imbibition water. 11-OH-JA decreased in the imbibition water of wild-type seeds at 48 h. On the contrary, a high and sustained liberation of this compound was observed in tss1 after 24 h. 12-OH-JA increased in wild-type as well in tss1 until 24 h. Thereafter, a substantial reduction in the content of this compound was registered. NaCl-treated wild-type seedlings increased their 12-OH-JA, but tss1 seedlings increased their JA in response to salt treatment. In tss2 seedlings, NaCl caused a slight decrease in 11-OH-JA and JAME, whereas tos1 seedlings showed a dramatic OPDA and 12-OH-JA decrease in response to salt treatment. Under salt stress the mutant seedlings showed different patterns of JAs according to their differential hypersensitivity to abiotic stress. The JA-hydroxylate forms found, and the differential accumulation of JAs during germination, imbibition and seedling development, as well as their response to NaCl stress, provide new evidence about the control of many developmental processes by JA.