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Publikationen - Molekulare Signalverarbeitung

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Vaira, A. M.; Gago-Zachert, S.; Garcia, M. L.; Guerri, J.; Hammond, J.; Milne, R. G.; Moreno, P.; Morikawa, T.; Natsuaki, T.; Navarro, J. A.; Pallas, V.; Torok, V.; Verbeek, M.; Vetten, H. J.; Family - Ophioviridae (King, A. M. Q., et al., eds.). 743-748, (2012) DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-384684-6.00060-4

This chapter focuses on Ophioviridae family whose sole member genus is Ophiovirus. The member species of the genus include Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), Freesia sneak virus(FreSV), Lettuce ring necrosis virus (LRNV), and Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus (MiLBVV).The single stranded negative/possibly ambisense RNA genome is divided into 3–4 segments, each of which is encapsidated in a single coat protein (43–50 kDa) forming filamentous virions of about 3 nm in diameter, in shape of kinked or probably internally coiled circles of at least two different contour lengths. Ophioviruses can be mechanically transmitted to a limited range of test plants, inducing local lesions and systemic mottle. The natural hosts of CPsV, ranunculus white mottle virus (RWMV), MiLBVV, and LRNV are dicotyledonous plants of widely differing taxonomy. CPsV has a wide geographical distribution in citrus in the Americas, in the Mediterranean and in New Zealand. FreSV has been reported in two species of the family Ranunculacae from Northern Italy, and in lettuce in France and Germany. Tulip mild mottle mosaic virus (TMMMV) has been reported in tulips in Japan. LRNV is closely associated with lettuce ring necrosis disease in The Netherlands, Belgium, and France, and FreSV has been reported in Europe, Africa, North America and New Zealand.

Fellenberg, C.; Ziegler, J.; Handrick, V.; Vogt, T.; Polyamine homeostasis in wild type and phenolamide deficient Arabidopsis thaliana stamens Front. Plant Sci. 3, 180, (2012) DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2012.00180

Polyamines (PAs) like putrescine, spermidine, and spermine are ubiquitous polycationic molecules that occur in all living cells and have a role in a wide variety of biological processes. High amounts of spermidine conjugated to hydroxycinnamic acids are detected in the tryphine of Arabidopsis thaliana pollen grains. Tapetum localized spermidine hydroxycinnamic acid transferase (SHT) is essential for the biosynthesis of these anther specific tris-conjugated spermidine derivatives. Sht knockout lines show a strong reduction of hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAAs). The effect of HCAA-deficient anthers on the level of free PAs was measured by a new sensitive and reproducible method using 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC) and fluorescence detection by HPLC. PA concentrations can be accurately determined even when very limited amounts of plant material, as in the case of A. thaliana stamens, are available. Analysis of free PAs in wild type stamens compared to sht deficient mutants and transcript levels of key PA biosynthetic genes revealed a highly controlled regulation of PA homeostasis in A. thaliana anthers.

Den Herder, G.; Yoshida, S.; Antolín-Llovera, M.; Ried, M. K.; Parniske, M.; Lotus japonicus E3 Ligase SEVEN IN ABSENTIA4 Destabilizes the Symbiosis Receptor-Like Kinase SYMRK and Negatively Regulates Rhizobial Infection Plant Cell 24, 1691-1707, (2012) DOI: 10.1105/tpc.110.082248

The Lotus japonicus SYMBIOSIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE (SYMRK) is required for symbiotic signal transduction upon stimulation of root cells by microbial signaling molecules. Here, we identified members of the SEVEN IN ABSENTIA (SINA) E3 ubiquitin-ligase family as SYMRK interactors and confirmed their predicted ubiquitin-ligase activity. In Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, SYMRK–yellow fluorescent protein was localized at the plasma membrane, and interaction with SINAs, as determined by bimolecular fluorescence complementation, was observed in small punctae at the cytosolic interface of the plasma membrane. Moreover, fluorescence-tagged SINA4 partially colocalized with SYMRK and caused SYMRK relocalization as well as disappearance of SYMRK from the plasma membrane. Neither the localization nor the abundance of Nod-factor receptor1 was altered by the presence of SINA4. SINA4 was transcriptionally upregulated during root symbiosis, and rhizobia inoculated roots ectopically expressing SINA4 showed reduced SYMRK protein levels. In accordance with a negative regulatory role in symbiosis, infection thread development was impaired upon ectopic expression of SINA4. Our results implicate SINA4 E3 ubiquitin ligase in the turnover of SYMRK and provide a conceptual mechanism for its symbiosis-appropriate spatio-temporal containment.

Antolín-Llovera, M.; Ried, M. K.; Binder, A.; Parniske, M.; Receptor Kinase Signaling Pathways in Plant-Microbe Interactions Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 50, 451-473, (2012) DOI: 10.1146/annurev-phyto-081211-173002

Plant receptor-like kinases (RLKs) function in diverse signaling pathways, including the responses to microbial signals in symbiosis and defense. This versatility is achieved with a common overall structure: an extracytoplasmic domain (ectodomain) and an intracellular protein kinase domain involved in downstream signal transduction. Various surfaces of the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) ectodomain superstructure are utilized for interaction with the cognate ligand in both plant and animal receptors. RLKs with lysin-motif (LysM) ectodomains confer recognitional specificity toward N-acetylglucosamine-containing signaling molecules, such as chitin, peptidoglycan (PGN), and rhizobial nodulation factor (NF), that induce immune or symbiotic responses. Signaling downstream of RLKs does not follow a single pattern; instead, the detailed analysis of brassinosteroid (BR) signaling, innate immunity, and symbiosis revealed at least three largely nonoverlapping pathways. In this review, we focus on RLKs involved in plant-microbe interactions and contrast the signaling pathways leading to symbiosis and defense.
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