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Wasternack, C.; Strnad, M.; Jasmonates: News on Occurrence, Biosynthesis, Metabolism and Action of an Ancient Group of Signaling Compounds Int. J. Mol. Sci. 19, 2539, (2018) DOI: 10.3390/ijms19092539

Jasmonic acid (JA) and its related derivatives are ubiquitously occurring compounds of land plants acting in numerous stress responses and development. Recent studies on evolution of JA and other oxylipins indicated conserved biosynthesis. JA formation is initiated by oxygenation of α-linolenic acid (α-LeA, 18:3) or 16:3 fatty acid of chloroplast membranes leading to 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) as intermediate compound, but in Marchantiapolymorpha and Physcomitrellapatens, OPDA and some of its derivatives are final products active in a conserved signaling pathway. JA formation and its metabolic conversion take place in chloroplasts, peroxisomes and cytosol, respectively. Metabolites of JA are formed in 12 different pathways leading to active, inactive and partially active compounds. The isoleucine conjugate of JA (JA-Ile) is the ligand of the receptor component COI1 in vascular plants, whereas in the bryophyte M. polymorpha COI1 perceives an OPDA derivative indicating its functionally conserved activity. JA-induced gene expressions in the numerous biotic and abiotic stress responses and development are initiated in a well-studied complex regulation by homeostasis of transcription factors functioning as repressors and activators.

Delker, C.; Stenzel, I.; Hause, B.; Miersch, O.; Feussner, I.; Wasternack, C.; Jasmonate Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana - Enzymes, Products, Regulation Plant Biol. 8, 297-306, (2006) DOI: 10.1055/s-2006-923935

Among the plant hormones jasmonic acid and related derivatives are known to mediate stress responses and several developmental processes. Biosynthesis, regulation, and metabolism of jasmonic acid in Arabidopsis thaliana are reviewed, including properties of mutants of jasmonate biosynthesis. The individual signalling properties of several jasmonates are described.

Stenzel, I.; Hause, B.; Maucher, H.; Pitzschke, A.; Miersch, O.; Ziegler, J.; Ryan, C. A.; Wasternack, C.; Allene oxide cyclase dependence of the wound response and vascular bundle-specific generation of jasmonates in tomato - amplification in wound signalling Plant J. 33, 577-589, (2003) DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-313X.2003.01647.x

The allene oxide cyclase (AOC)‐catalyzed step in jasmonate (JA) biosynthesis is important in the wound response of tomato. As shown by treatments with systemin and its inactive analog, and by analysis of 35S::prosysteminsense and 35S::prosysteminantisense plants, the AOC seems to be activated by systemin (and JA) leading to elevated formation of JA. Data are presented on the local wound response following activation of AOC and generation of JA, both in vascular bundles. The tissue‐specific occurrence of AOC protein and generation of JA is kept upon wounding or other stresses, but is compromised in 35S::AOCsense plants, whereas 35S::AOCantisense plants exhibited residual AOC expression, a less than 10% rise in JA, and no detectable expression of wound response genes. The (i) activation of systemin‐dependent AOC and JA biosynthesis occurring only upon substrate generation, (ii) the tissue‐specific occurrence of AOC in vascular bundles, where the prosystemin gene is expressed, and (iii) the tissue‐specific generation of JA suggest an amplification in the wound response of tomato leaves allowing local and rapid defense responses.

Maucher, H.; Hause, B.; Feussner, I.; Ziegler, J.; Wasternack, C.; Allene oxide synthases of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Salome): tissue specific regulation in seedling development Plant J. 21, 199-213, (2000) DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-313x.2000.00669.x

Allene oxide synthase (AOS) is the first enzyme in the lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway which leads to formation of jasmonic acid (JA). Two full‐length cDNAs of AOS designated as AOS1 and AOS2, respectively, were isolated from barley (H. vulgare cv. Salome) leaves, which represent the first AOS clones from a monocotyledonous species. For AOS1, the open reading frame encompasses 1461 bp encoding a polypeptide of 487 amino acids with calculated molecular mass of 53.4 kDa and an isoelectric point of 9.3, whereas the corresponding data of AOS2 are 1443 bp, 480 amino acids, 52.7 kDa and 7.9. Southern blot analysis revealed at least two genes. Despite the lack of a putative chloroplast signal peptide in both sequences, the protein co‐purified with chloroplasts and was localized within chloroplasts by immunocytochemical analysis. The barley AOSs, expressed in bacteria as active enzymes, catalyze the dehydration of LOX‐derived 9‐ as well as 13‐hydroperoxides of polyenoic fatty acids to the unstable allene oxides. In leaves, AOS mRNA accumulated upon treatment with jasmonates, octadecanoids and metabolizable carbohydrates, but not upon floating on abscisic acid, NaCl, Na‐salicylate or infection with powdery mildew. In developing seedlings, AOS mRNA strongly accumulated in the scutellar nodule, but less in the leaf base. Both tissues exhibited elevated JA levels. In situ hybridizations revealed the preferential occurrence of AOS mRNA in parenchymatic cells surrounding the vascular bundles of the scutellar nodule and in the young convoluted leaves as well as within the first internode. The properties of both barley AOSs, their up‐regulation of their mRNAs and their tissue specific expression suggest a role during seedling development and jasmonate biosynthesis.

Hause, B.; Stenzel, I.; Miersch, O.; Maucher, H.; Kramell, R.; Ziegler, J.; Wasternack, C.; Tissue-specific oxylipin signature of tomato flowers: allene oxide cyclase is highly expressed in distinct flower organs and vascular bundles Plant J. 24, 113-126, (2000) DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-313x.2000.00861.x

A crucial step in the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid (JA) is the formation of its correct stereoisomeric precursor, cis (+)12‐oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA). This step is catalysed by allene oxide cyclase (AOC), which has been recently cloned from tomato . In stems, young leaves and young flowers, AOC mRNA accumulates to a low level , contrasting with a high accumulation in flower buds, flower stalks and roots. The high levels of AOC mRNA and AOC protein in distinct flower organs correlate with high AOC activity, and with elevated levels of JA, OPDA and JA isoleucine conjugate. These compounds accumulate in flowers to levels of about 20 nmol g−1 fresh weight, which is two orders of magnitude higher than in leaves. In pistils, the level of OPDA is much higher than that of JA, whereas in flower stalks, the level of JA exceeds that of OPDA. In other flower tissues, the ratios among JA, OPDA and JA isoleucine conjugate differ remarkably, suggesting a tissue‐specific oxylipin signature. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed the specific occurrence of the AOC protein in ovules, the transmission tissue of the style and in vascular bundles of receptacles, flower stalks, stems, petioles and roots. Based on the tissue‐specific AOC expression and formation of JA, OPDA and JA amino acid conjugates, a possible role for these compounds in flower development is discussed in terms of their effect on sink–source relationships and plant defence reactions. Furthermore, the AOC expression in vascular bundles might play a role in the systemin‐mediated wound response of tomato.

Hause, B.; Hertel, S. C.; Klaus, D.; Wasternack, C.; Cultivar-Specific Expression of the Jasmonate-Induced Protein of 23 kDa (JIP-23) Occurs in Hordeum vulgare L. by Jasmonates but not During Seed Germination Plant Biol. 1, 83-89, (1999) DOI: 10.1111/j.1438-8677.1999.tb00712.x

Treatment of barley leaf segments with jasmonic acid methyl ester (JM) leads to the accumulation of a set of newly formed abundant proteins. Among them, the most abun dant protein exhibits a molecular mass of 23 kDa (JIP‐23). Here, data are presented on the occurrence and expression of the lIP‐23 genes in different cultivars of Hordeum vulgare . Southern blot analysis of 80 cultivars revealed the occurrence of 2 to 4 genes coding for JIP‐23 in all cultivars. By means of Northern blot and immunoblot analysis it is shown that some cultivars lack the ex pression of jip‐23 upon treatment of primary leaves with JM as well as upon stress performed by incubation with 1 M sorbitol solution. During germination, however, all tested cultivars ex hibited developmental expression of jip‐23 . The results are dis cussed in terms of possible functions of JIP‐23 in barley.

Vignutelli, A.; Wasternack, C.; Apel, K.; Bohlmann, H.; Systemic and local induction of an Arabidopsis thionin gene by wounding and pathogens Plant J. 14, 285-295, (1998) DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-313X.1998.00117.x

The Arabidopsis Thi2.1 thionin gene was cloned and sequenced. The promoter was fused to the uidA gene and stably transformed into Arabidopsis to study its regulation. GUS expression levels correlated with the steady‐state levels of Thi2.1 mRNA, thus demonstrating that the promoter is sufficient for the regulation of the Thi2.1 gene. The sensitivity of the Thi2.1 gene to methyl jasmonate was found to be developmentally determined. Systemic and local expression could be induced by wounding and inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f sp. matthiolae . A deletion analysis of the promoter identified a fragment of 325 bp upstream of the start codon, which appears to contain all the elements necessary for the regulation of the Thi2.1 gene. These results support the view that thionins are defence proteins, and indicate the possibility that resistance of Arabidopsis plants to necrotrophic fungal pathogens is mediated through the octadecanoid pathway.
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