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Publikationen - Molekulare Signalverarbeitung

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Delker, C.; Stenzel, I.; Hause, B.; Miersch, O.; Feussner, I.; Wasternack, C.; Jasmonate Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana - Enzymes, Products, Regulation Plant Biol. 8, 297-306, (2006) DOI: 10.1055/s-2006-923935

Among the plant hormones jasmonic acid and related derivatives are known to mediate stress responses and several developmental processes. Biosynthesis, regulation, and metabolism of jasmonic acid in Arabidopsis thaliana are reviewed, including properties of mutants of jasmonate biosynthesis. The individual signalling properties of several jasmonates are described.

Rudus, I.; Kepczynska, E.; Kepczynski, J.; Wasternack, C.; Miersch, O.; Changes in jasmonates and 12-oxophytodienoic acid contents of Medicago sativa L. during somatic embryogenesis Acta Physiol. Plant. 27, 497-504, (2005) DOI: 10.1007/s11738-005-0055-x

Jasmonic acid (JA), its methyl ester (MeJA) and the biosynthetic precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) were detected quantitatively during somatic embryogenesis of Medicago sativa L. Using GC-MS analysis, these compounds were found in initial explants, in calli and in somatic embryos in the nanogram range per gram of fresh weight. In distinct stages of somatic embryogenesis, JA and 12-OPDA accumulated preferentially in cotyledonary embryos. Initial explants exhibited about five-fold higher JA content than OPDA content, whereas in other stages OPDA accumulated predominantly. These data suggest that also in embryogenic tissues OPDA and JA may have individual signalling properties.

Hause, B.; Hertel, S. C.; Klaus, D.; Wasternack, C.; Cultivar-Specific Expression of the Jasmonate-Induced Protein of 23 kDa (JIP-23) Occurs in Hordeum vulgare L. by Jasmonates but not During Seed Germination Plant Biol. 1, 83-89, (1999) DOI: 10.1111/j.1438-8677.1999.tb00712.x

Treatment of barley leaf segments with jasmonic acid methyl ester (JM) leads to the accumulation of a set of newly formed abundant proteins. Among them, the most abun dant protein exhibits a molecular mass of 23 kDa (JIP‐23). Here, data are presented on the occurrence and expression of the lIP‐23 genes in different cultivars of Hordeum vulgare . Southern blot analysis of 80 cultivars revealed the occurrence of 2 to 4 genes coding for JIP‐23 in all cultivars. By means of Northern blot and immunoblot analysis it is shown that some cultivars lack the ex pression of jip‐23 upon treatment of primary leaves with JM as well as upon stress performed by incubation with 1 M sorbitol solution. During germination, however, all tested cultivars ex hibited developmental expression of jip‐23 . The results are dis cussed in terms of possible functions of JIP‐23 in barley.

Vörös, K.; Feussner, I.; Kühn, H.; Lee, J.; Graner, A.; Löbler, M.; Parthier, B.; Wasternack, C.; Characterization of a methyljasmonate-inducible lipoxygenase from barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Salome) leaves Eur. J. Biochem. 251, 36-44, (1998) DOI: 10.1046/j.1432-1327.1998.2510036.x

We found three methyl jasmonate−induced lipoxygenases with molecular masses of 92 kDa, 98 kDa, and 100 kDa (LOX‐92, ‐98 and ‐100) [Feussner, I., Hause, B., Vörös, K., Parthier, B. & Wasternack, C. (1995) Plant J. 7 , 949−957]. At least two of them (LOX‐92 and LOX‐100), were shown to be localized within chloroplasts of barley leaves. Here, we describe the isolation of a cDNA (3073 bp) coding for LOX‐100, a protein of 936 amino acid residues and a molecular mass of 106 kDa. By sequence comparison this lipoxygenase could be identified as LOX2‐type lipoxygenase and was therefore designated LOX2 : Hv : 1 . The recombinant lipoxygenase was expressed in Escherichia coli and characterized as linoleate 13‐LOX and arachidonate 15‐LOX, respectively. The enzyme exhibited a pH optimum around pH 7.0 and a moderate substrate preference for linoleic acid. The gene was transiently expressed after exogenous application of jasmonic acid methyl ester with a maximum between 12 h and 18 h. Its expression was not affected by exogenous application of abscisic acid. Also a rise of endogenous jasmonic acid resulting from sorbitol stress did not induce LOX2 : Hv : 1 , suggesting a separate signalling pathway compared with other jasmonate‐induced proteins of barley. The properties of LOX2 : Hv : 1 are discussed in relation to its possible involvement in jasmonic acid biosynthesis and other LOX forms of barley identified so far.

Hause, B.; Feussner, K.; Wasternack, C.; Nuclear Location of a Diadenosine 5′,5′”-P1,P4Tetraphosphate (Ap4A) Hydrolase in Tomato Cells Grown in Suspension Cultures Bot. Acta 110, 452-457, (1997) DOI: 10.1111/j.1438-8677.1997.tb00662.x

Diadenosine 5′,5′”‐P1,P4‐tetraphosphate (Ap4A) cleaving enzymes are assumed to regulate intracellular levels of Ap4A, a compound known to affect cell proliferation and stress responses. From plants an Ap4A hydrolase was recently purified using tomato cells grown in suspension. It was partially sequenced and a peptide antibody was prepared (Feussner et al., 1996). Using this polyclonal monospecific antibody, an abundant nuclear location of Ap4A hydrolase in 4‐day‐old cells of atomato cell suspension culture is demonstrated here by means of immunocytochemical techniques using FITC (fluorescein‐5‐isothiocyanate) labeled secondary antibodies. The microscopic analysis of the occurrence of Ap4A hydrolase performed for different stages of the cell cycle visualized by parallel DAPI (4,6‐diamidino‐2‐phenylindole) staining revealed that the protein accumulates within nuclei of cells in the interphase, but is absent in the nucleus as well as cytoplasm during all stages of mitosis. This first intracellular localization of an Ap4A degrading enzyme within the nucleus and its pattern of appearance during the cell cycle is discussed in relation to the suggested role of Ap4A in triggering DNA synthesis and cell proliferation.

Feussner, I.; Fritz, I. G.; Hause, B.; Ullrich, W. R.; Wasternack, C.; Induction of a new Lipoxygenase Form in Cucumber Leaves by Salicylic Acid or 2,6-Dichloroisonicotinic Acid Bot. Acta 110, 101-108, (1997) DOI: 10.1111/j.1438-8677.1997.tb00616.x

Changes in lipoxygenase (LOX) protein pattern and/or activity were investigated in relation to acquired resistance of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) leaves against two powdery mildews, Sphaerotheca fuliginea (Schlecht) Salmon and Erysiphe cichoracearum DC et Merat. Acquired resistance was established by spraying leaves with salicylic acid (SA) or 2,6‐dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA) and estimated in whole plants by infested leaf area compared to control plants. SA was more effective than INA. According to Western blots, untreated cucumber leaves contained a 97 kDa LOX form, which remained unchanged for up to 48 h after pathogen inoculation. Upon treatment with SA alone for 24 h or with INA plus pathogen, an additional 95 kDa LOX form appeared which had an isoelectric point in the alkaline range. For the induction of this form, a threshold concentration of 1 mM SA was required, higher SA concentrations did not change LOX‐95 expression which remained similar between 24 h and 96 h but further increased upon mildew inoculation. Phloem exudates contained only the LOX‐97 form, in intercellular washing fluid no LOX was detected. dichloroisonicotinic localization revealed LOX protein in the cytosol of the mesophyll cells without differences between the forms.

Hause, B.; zur Nieden, U.; Lehmann, J.; Wasternack, C.; Parthier, B.; Intracellular Localization of Jasmonate-Induced Proteins in Barley Leaves Bot. Acta 107, 333-341, (1994) DOI: 10.1111/j.1438-8677.1994.tb00804.x

The plant growth substance jasmonic acid and its methyl ester (JA‐Me) induce a set of proteins (jasmonate‐induced proteins, JIPs) when applied to leaf segments of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Salome). Most of these JIPs could be localized within different cell compartments by using a combination of biochemical and histochemical methods. Isolation and purification of various cell organelles of barley mesophyll cells, the separation of their proteins by one‐dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the identification of the major abundant JIPs by Western blot analysis, as well as the immuno‐gold labelling of JIPs in ultrathin sections were performed to localize JIPs intracellularly. JIP‐23 was found to be in vacuoles, peroxisomes, and in the granular parts of the nucleus as well as within the cytoplasm; JIP‐37 was detected in vacuoles and in the nucleoplasm; JIP‐66 is a cytosolic protein. Some less abundant JIPs were also localized within different cell compartments: JIP‐100 was found within the stromal fraction of chloroplasts; JIP‐70 is present in the peroxisome and the nucleus; JIP‐50 and JIP‐6 accumulate in vacuoles. The location of JIP‐66 and JIP‐6 confirms their possible physiological role deduced from molecular analysis of their cDNA.
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