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Bücher und Buchkapitel

Wasternack, C.; Jasmonates: Synthesis, Metabolism, Signal Transduction and Action (2016) DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0020138.pub2

Jasmonic acid and other fatty‐acid‐derived compounds called oxylipins are signals in stress responses and development of plants. The receptor complex, signal transduction components as well as repressors and activators in jasmonate‐induced gene expression have been elucidated. Different regulatory levels and cross‐talk with other hormones are responsible for the multiplicity of plant responses to environmental and developmental cues.
Publikation

Wasternack, C.; How Jasmonates Earned their Laurels: Past and Present J. Plant Growth Regul. 34, 761-794, (2015) DOI: 10.1007/s00344-015-9526-5

The histories of research regarding all plant hormones are similar. Identification and structural elucidation have been followed by analyses of their biosynthesis, distributions, signaling cascades, roles in developmental or stress response programs, and crosstalk. Jasmonic acid (JA) and its derivatives comprise a group of plant hormones that were discovered recently, compared to auxin, abscisic acid, cytokinins, gibberellic acid, and ethylene. Nevertheless, there have been tremendous advances in JA research, following the general progression outlined above and parallel efforts focused on several other “new” plant hormones (brassinosteroids, salicylate, and strigolactones). This review focuses on historical aspects of the identification of jasmonates, and characterization of their biosynthesis, distribution, perception, signaling pathways, crosstalk with other hormones and roles in plant stress responses and development. The aim is to illustrate how our present knowledge on jasmonates was generated and how that influences current efforts to extend our knowledge.
Bücher und Buchkapitel

Wasternack, C.; Jasmonates in Plant Growth and Stress Responses (Tran, L.-S. P. & Pal, S., eds.). 221-263, (2014) ISBN: 978-1-4939-0491-4 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-0491-4_8

Jasmonates are lipid-derived compounds which are signals in plant stress responses and development. They are synthesized in chloroplasts and peroxisomes. An endogenous rise occurs upon environmental stimuli or in distinct stages of development such as that of anthers and trichomes or in root growth. Hydroxylation, carboxylation, glucosylation, sulfation, methylation, or conjugation of jasmonic acid (JA) leads to numerous metabolites. Many of them are at least partially biologically inactive. The most bioactive JA is the (+)-7-iso-JA–isoleucine conjugate. Its perception takes place by the SCFCOI1-JAZ-co-receptor complex. At elevated levels of JAs, negative regulators such as JAZ, or JAV are subjected to proteasomal degradation, thereby allowing positively acting transcription factors of the MYC or MYB family to switch on JA-induced gene expression. In case of JAM negative regulation takes place by anatagonism to MYC2. JA and COI1 are dominant signals in gene expression after wounding or in response to necrotrophic pathogens. Cross-talk to salicylic acid, ethylene, auxin, and other hormones occurs. Growth is inhibited by JA, thereby counteracting the growth stimulation by gibberellic acid. Senescence, trichome formation, arbuscular mycorrhiza, and formation of many secondary metabolites are induced by jasmonates. Effects in cold acclimation; in intercropping; during response to herbivores, nematodes, or necrotrophic pathogens; in pre- and post-harvest; in crop quality control; and in biosynthesis of secondary compounds led to biotechnological and agricultural applications.
Bücher und Buchkapitel

Wasternack, C.; Jasmonates in Stress, Growth, and Development 91-118, (2010) ISBN: 9783527628964 DOI: 10.1002/9783527628964.ch5

This chapter contains sections titled:IntroductionJA BiosynthesisJA MetabolismBound OPDA – ArabidopsidesMutants of JA Biosynthesis and SignalingCOI1–JAZ–JA‐Ile‐Mediated JA SignalingTranscription Factors Involved in JA SignalingJasmonates and Oxylipins in DevelopmentConclusionsAcknowledgmentsReferences
Bücher und Buchkapitel

Dorka, R.; Miersch, O.; Hause, B.; Weik, P.; Wasternack, C.; Chronobiologische Phänomene und Jasmonatgehalt bei Viscum album L. 49-66, (2009)

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Publikation

Schilling, S.; Wasternack, C.; Demuth, H.-U.; Glutaminyl cyclases from animals and plants: a case of functionally convergent protein evolution Biol. Chem. 389, (2008) DOI: 10.1515/BC.2008.111

Several mammalian peptide hormones and proteins from plant and animal origin contain an N-terminal pyroglutamic acid (pGlu) residue. Frequently, the moiety is important in exerting biological function in either mediating interaction with receptors or stabilizing against N-terminal degradation. Glutaminyl cyclases (QCs) were isolated from different plants and animals catalyzing pGlu formation. The recent resolution of the 3D structures of Carica papaya and human QCs clearly supports different evolutionary origins of the proteins, which is also reflected by different enzymatic mechanisms. The broad substrate specificity is revealed by the heterogeneity of physiological substrates of plant and animal QCs, including cytokines, matrix proteins and pathogenesis-related proteins. Moreover, recent evidence also suggests human QC as a catalyst of pGlu formation at the N-terminus of amyloid peptides, which contribute to Alzheimer's disease. Obviously, owing to its biophysical properties, the function of pGlu in plant and animal proteins is very similar in terms of stabilizing or mediating protein and peptide structure. It is possible that the requirement for catalysis of pGlu formation under physiological conditions may have triggered separate evolution of QCs in plants and animals.
Bücher und Buchkapitel

Wasternack, C.; Hause, B.; Stenzel, I.; Goetz, S.; Feussner, I.; Miersch, O.; Jasmonate signaling in tomato – The input of tissue-specific occurrence of allene oxide cyclase and JA metabolites (Benning C., Ollrogge, J.). 107-111, (2007)

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Publikation

Schilling, S.; Stenzel, I.; von Bohlen, A.; Wermann, M.; Schulz, K.; Demuth, H.-U.; Wasternack, C.; Isolation and characterization of the glutaminyl cyclases from Solanum tuberosum and Arabidopsis thaliana: implications for physiological functions Biol. Chem. 388, 145-153, (2007) DOI: 10.1515/BC.2007.016

Glutaminyl cyclases (QCs) catalyze the formation of pyroglutamic acid at the N-terminus of several peptides and proteins. On the basis of the amino acid sequence of Carica papaya QC, we identified cDNAs of the putative counterparts from Solanum tuberosum and Arabidopsis thaliana. Upon expression of the corresponding cDNAs from both plants via the secretory pathway of Pichia pastoris, two active QC proteins were isolated. The specificity of the purified proteins was assessed using various substrates with different amino acid composition and length. Highest specificities were observed with substrates possessing large hydrophobic residues adjacent to the N-terminal glutamine and for fluorogenic dipeptide surrogates. However, compared to Carica papaya QC, the specificity constants were approximately one order of magnitude lower for most of the QC substrates analyzed. The QCs also catalyzed the conversion of N-terminal glutamic acid to pyroglutamic acid, but with approximately 105- to 106-fold lower specificity. The ubiquitous distribution of plant QCs prompted a search for potential substrates in plants. Based on database entries, numerous proteins, e.g., pathogenesis-related proteins, were found that carry a pyroglutamate residue at the N-terminus, suggesting QC involvement. The putative relevance of QCs and pyroglutamic acid for plant defense reactions is discussed.
Publikation

Delker, C.; Stenzel, I.; Hause, B.; Miersch, O.; Feussner, I.; Wasternack, C.; Jasmonate Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana - Enzymes, Products, Regulation Plant Biol. 8, 297-306, (2006) DOI: 10.1055/s-2006-923935

Among the plant hormones jasmonic acid and related derivatives are known to mediate stress responses and several developmental processes. Biosynthesis, regulation, and metabolism of jasmonic acid in Arabidopsis thaliana are reviewed, including properties of mutants of jasmonate biosynthesis. The individual signalling properties of several jasmonates are described.
Bücher und Buchkapitel

Wasternack, C.; Jasmonates—Biosynthesis and Role in Stress Responses and Developmental Processes 143-155, (2004) DOI: 10.1016/B978-012520915-1/50012-6

This chapter presents jasmonates and their related compounds and discusses jasmonate-induced alteration of gene expression. Jasmonates exerts two different changes in gene expression— decrease in the expression of nuclear- and chloroplast-encoded genes and increase in the expression of specific genes. Jasmonates are shown to alter sink-source relationships such as JA promotes formation of the N-rich vegetative storage proteins—VSPα and VSPβ—of soybean, including reallocation in pod filling. In addition to such nutrient reallocation to other parts of the plant, jasmonates cause decreases in photosynthesis and chlorophyll content, the most significant manifestations of senescence in leaves. The rise of endogenous jasmonates upon stress or exogenous treatment with jasmonates correlates in time with the expression of various genes. The promotion of senescence by jasmonates is counteracted by cytokinins. The capacity of jasmonates to down regulate photosynthetic genes may also be one determinant in the onset of senescence.
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